BY THE NUM­BERS

Cosmos - - Digest -

–98

The night-time tem­per­a­ture in de­grees Cel­sius of the cold­est places on Earth: tiny val­leys in East Antarc­tica. Gla­ciol­o­gist Ted Scam­bos found the spots with satel­lite imag­ing, ac­cord­ing to a study in Geo­phys­i­cal Re­search Let­ters.

100

The price in US dol­lars for a set of Bio­bits, a kit of syn­thetic bi­ol­ogy ex­per­i­ments for schools. As de­scribed in two pa­pers in Science Ad­vances, the kits use freeze- dried start­ing ma­te­rial to pro­duce colours, fra­grances and hy­dro­gels with­out com­plex equip­ment.

9.3

The per­cent­age drop in corn pro­duc­tion due to the loss of sun­light caused by the erup­tion of Mt Pi­natubo in 1991. Dump­ing sul­fates into the up­per at­mos­phere to com­bat global warm­ing could have a sim­i­lar ef­fect, ac­cord­ing to a pa­per in Na­ture by Jonathan Proc­tor.

30

The num­ber of quad­copters in the largest self- or­gan­is­ing aerial drone swarm yet cre­ated. As de­scribed in a pa­per in Science Ro­bot­ics by Gá­bor Vásárhe­lyi, the au­ton­o­mous drones flock with­out col­lid­ing.

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