Tak­ing The Art Out Of Games

The Fries Mu­seum’s New Hori­zons ex­hi­bi­tion frames game artistry in an en­tirely new way


The Fries Mu­seum’s New Hori­zons ex­hi­bi­tion presents game art in a new con­text

Dur­ing the past few years, mu­se­ums across the west­ern world, such as Wash­ing­ton DC’s Smith­so­nian and Lon­don’s V&A, have be­gun to ex­am­ine videogames in a new kind of cul­tural con­text. Typ­i­cally th­ese ex­hibits have cho­sen to chart the medium’s evo­lu­tion from its ini­tial ten­ta­tive emer­gence from the bel­lies of Amer­i­can tech uni­ver­si­ties into the bars and ar­cades of the 1970s, then through to the vivid com­plex­ity and va­ri­ety of to­day. But the Fries Mu­seum in Leeuwar­den, The Nether­lands, has used a dif­fer­ent kind of lens for its ex­am­i­na­tion of games in its New Hori­zons ex­hi­bi­tion. Its cu­ra­tors, Tim Lan­ing and Maarten Brands, chose to fo­cus not on the medium’s tech­no­log­i­cal ad­vances, but on the art that is con­tained within and pre­sented by games, as well the ways in which games have in­flu­enced con­tem­po­rary fine artists.

New Hori­zons is di­verse and largely un­playable. You can, for ex­am­ple, view stills of the ex­quis­ite en­vi­ron­ments of Bat­tle­field 4 or Need For Speed Ri­vals, of­fer­ing a mo­ment’s peace in which to ad­mire the craft of their world de­sign. Like­wise, the show ex­plores how the im­pos­si­ble mazes of MC Escher have in­flu­enced games such as Echochrome and Mon­u­ment Val­ley, while also ex­am­in­ing how games have in­formed the work of con­tem­po­rary artists such as Harun Farocki, Mon­ica Studer and Christoph Van Den Berg, and Jen­nifer Steinkamp. By re­mov­ing the con­troller from the equa­tion, the in­tent is to make the art of games more ac­ces­si­ble (even if, ar­guably, the medium’s main artis­tic worth is lost in the di­vorce).

As one of the first ex­am­ples of this kind of ex­hibit, New Hori­zons poses as many ques­tions as it an­swers. At times, the well-pre­sented screen­shots and con­cept art can seem like pieces of mer­chan­dise dressed up as some­thing else. Like­wise, the em­pha­sis on block­buster ti­tles shows off a medium ap­par­ently ob­sessed with a par­tic­u­lar kind of tech-fo­cused re­al­ism. We gather sev­eral of the con­trib­u­tors – BioWare art direc­tor Derek Watts, Naughty Dog con­cept artists John Sweeny and Nick Gin­draux, along with Thatgame­com­pany sys­tems en­gi­neer Mike Lester – to dis­cuss how they feel about their work be­ing shown off in this un­fa­mil­iar con­text.

Why did you each de­cide to make videogames your cho­sen medium, as op­posed to more tra­di­tional artis­tic out­puts?

Derek Watts My back­ground was in graphic de­sign and ad­ver­tis­ing. I still in­cor­po­rate some of that in my work. I de­signed [ Mass Ef­fect’s] N7 logo, for ex­am­ple, which is a graphic de­sign logo. I’m still into sig­nage and ar­chi­tec­ture. But I left ad­ver­tis­ing for a few rea­sons, not least be­cause peo­ple quickly by­pass a lot of the stuff you pro­duce. I stum­bled into games by ac­ci­dent, ac­tu­ally. I wasn’t go­ing in that di­rec­tion at all. I was do­ing odd jobs and try­ing to sell fine art when a friend of mine who worked at BioWare en­cour­aged me to ap­ply for a job at the com­pany. I had enough ex­pe­ri­ence from drawing science fic­tion to se­cure the job. It was a lucky ac­ci­dent, re­ally.

John Sweeney My in­ter­est in games started long be­fore I went to art school. When I was a kid, I had the op­por­tu­nity to go visit the stu­dio that was work­ing on Twisted Metal: Black. I met one of the con­cept artists there. At the time, they didn’t use com­put­ers; he was do­ing work by draft­ing ti­tles. As a 12-yearold, I knew that I wanted to do that, and it set me on the path to art col­lege.

Nick Gin­draux I stum­bled into games. I thought I’d ma­jor in busi­ness, but while I was at col­lege I was watch­ing a lot of movies, and the ‘mak­ing of’ sec­tions on the DVDs. There was al­ways a seg­ment that looked at the con­cept art and some­thing sparked for me there. I thought, ‘I’d rather do that and make art for living.’ That’s when I started look­ing into art col­leges. I found out there that there’s a huge mar­ket for game art nowa­days.

Usu­ally when mu­se­ums ex­am­ine videogames, it’s in the con­text of the medium’s tech­no­log­i­cal evo­lu­tion. But more re­cently there have been a cou­ple of ex­hibits specif­i­cally fo­cused on the art of games. There’s also been the emer­gence of artists and cu­ra­tors such as Olly Moss and Gallery 88, who play with videogame iconog­ra­phy. What do you think has changed to cre­ate an ap­petite for this kind of work?

Tim Lan­ing I think there is more of an ac­cep­tance, be­cause games are ev­ery­where now, when they used to be tucked away. Peo­ple had an odd def­i­ni­tion of what a game was. But with smartphones, games are more ac­cepted and un­der­stood. Par­ents have started

to un­der­stand that there’s more to games than just shoot­ing – there’s art and craft and dis­ci­pline. That was one of the driv­ing mo­ti­va­tions be­hind this ex­hi­bi­tion. We didn’t just want to have a con­ver­sa­tion about whether or not games are art. We wanted an ex­hi­bi­tion cel­e­brat­ing art in games.

JS As games have be­come more main­stream in cul­ture, I think they [have be­come] more vis­i­ble. Peo­ple who, 20 years ago, might not have en­coun­tered games are now play­ing them. That’s bring­ing more at­ten­tion to games, and as a re­sult of that in­creased en­gage­ment, more peo­ple are notic­ing the art and pro­duc­tion val­ues within games.

Peo­ple then be­come at­tached to the images through their ex­pe­ri­ence with a game. When you’ve spent a few dozen hours with a char­ac­ter or place, you can look at those images and feel some­thing pro­found. This kind of event is ex­cit­ing be­cause when work­ing on a project as a con­cept artist, you can feel like you are just a part of pro­duc­tion pipe­line. So it’s great to see that peo­ple connect with our work in a dif­fer­ent kind of way. Ob­vi­ously, that’s what we want as artists, but some­times our job isn’t first and fore­most to make an im­age that’s hung on the wall and cel­e­brated.

With that in mind, how much is this place­ment of videogame stills or con­cept art in frames sim­ply an ex­ten­sion of mer­chan­dis­ing, and how much is a true aes­thetic re­ac­tion where the viewer’s ap­pre­ci­a­tion isn’t sim­ply be­cause of an at­tach­ment to the IP?

NG That’s in­ter­est­ing. It’s hard to re­move an im­age from its broader con­text. With games, each im­age has a con­no­ta­tion. But that be­ing said, if the im­age is strong and it says some­thing, then it can per­form both func­tions.

TL It’s al­ways been this way in fine art. Rem­brandt’s paint­ing The Night Watch was a com­mis­sion; it was ap­plied art paid for by a cap­tain and 17 mem­bers of his guard. Every­body who saw that paint­ing recog­nised the con­text of the art, and maybe even the peo­ple it de­picts. But 200 years later the work stands alone and has a dif­fer­ent mean­ing. I think that will be true of the videogame art we’re dis­play­ing here.

JS Some­one who played the game will have a par­tic­u­lar as­so­ci­a­tion. I’m cu­ri­ous how peo­ple who haven’t played the games th­ese images are taken from re­act to them, and whether or not they’re get­ting some­thing from the im­agery that has been re­moved from the game. They might not recog­nise the char­ac­ter and en­vi­ron­ment, but they still feel at­tached. I think that’s when this work proves it­self as be­ing able to be as­so­ci­ated with the art world.

Mike Lester I ac­tu­ally like the mer­chan­dis­ing as­pect of this. I col­lect Olly Moss prints and while his work is re­lated to games, it’s not art from the game. I also col­lect fine art prints that don’t have that con­text, but be­cause of my ex­pe­ri­ences within a game, I like the ex­tra con­text. I tend to as­so­ciate more strongly with prints that come from a game.

Broadly, there seem to be two di­rec­tions videogame art di­rec­tors take. In the block­buster space, the work usu­ally curves to­ward re­al­ism, while in the in­de­pen­dent space it tends to­ward nos­tal­gia. Can art teams, par­tic­u­larly on to­day’s big­bud­get games, find new aes­thetics, or do you think that end of the in­dus­try al­ways tends to­ward re­al­ism?

JS The medium of games is just the next evo­lu­tion of how we’re choos­ing to rep­re­sent the world around us. We’re con­stantly striv­ing to ex­plain our world through art. It’s in­ter­est­ing to look at games now: as they strive to be­come more re­al­is­tic, they are still in­ter­pre­tive. Even how grass looks and sounds, for ex­am­ple, is an in­ter­pre­ta­tion by the artist. There will al­ways be peo­ple who choose to rep­re­sent the world more ab­stractly. A lot of in­de­pen­dent games are choos­ing to do that with how they present re­al­ity. As tools be­come stronger, and more kinds of peo­ple be­come in­volved in game [cre­ation], th­ese new routes will open up. ML It would be nice to see more stylised block­buster games. DW That’s tough. With triple-A games, the amount of staff you have and the amount of money you need to spend on them usu­ally dic­tates the sin­gle art di­rec­tion of re­al­ism. It’s easy to sell that idea to a larger team. It’s eas­ier to sell re­al­ism than a par­tic­u­lar style to 50 artists. As you deal with more and more peo­ple who are out­sourced and free­lance, re­al­ism be­comes a com­mon goal that ev­ery­one can aim for.

Per­haps this will stop when we reach some­thing that is so re­al­is­tic that we can feel like it’s been done. But we’re not there yet. There’s a lot of tech­nol­ogy striv­ing for that endgame. Per­haps we’ll get there in a decade. But with large teams, it’s eas­ier to

“It’s in­ter­est­ing to look at games now: as they strive to be­come more re­al­is­tic, they are still in­ter­pre­tive”

co­or­di­nate ev­ery­one charg­ing in that di­rec­tion. I can look at some of my con­cept artists and imag­ine what a game in their par­tic­u­lar style might look like. But to get all of the con­cept artists to fol­low a cer­tain ri­val’s style is dif­fi­cult.

You iden­ti­fied two rea­sons why stylised art in block­buster games is dif­fi­cult. First, that it’s dif­fi­cult to con­vince and co­or­di­nate a large art team to fol­low a sin­gu­lar di­rec­tion, which is a pro­duc­tion is­sue. Then there’s a com­mer­cial is­sue of tak­ing a risk on an aes­thetic when such vast sums of money are in­volved. What if the au­di­ence re­jects the style? Which of th­ese is the greater is­sue?

ML The Leg­end Of Zelda: The Wind Waker was prob­a­bly the last block­buster re­lease that went for a sin­gu­lar art style and I think it’s true that the game proved hugely di­vi­sive be­cause of its art style.

JS Jour­ney was beau­ti­ful, and my fam­ily agreed. It seems to me like the public bought [in to] that un­usual style, so it’s not im­pos­si­ble.

ML Well, even with Jour­ney, there are still a lot of teenage girls who found it creepy. Any time you pick a style, there’s the artist’s ego to deal with, but also con­sumers. Ev­ery­one can get be­hind re­al­ism. But when you di­vert from that, you’re sub­di­vid­ing your au­di­ence.

The ar­gu­ment makes sense, but look­ing at the more re­cent Zelda ti­tles, The Wind Waker is among the most recog­nis­able and the least dated. The evo­lu­tion of re­al­ism dates games so quickly. Do you ever feel frus­trated that you have to make re­al­is­tic games that will in­escapably age?

DW Yes, the most frus­trat­ing thing is how quickly they age. That is de­press­ing. I’m also not sure that updating with HD ver­sions is al­ways the best idea… When does it stop? How many HD ver­sions are you con­sid­er­ing? Of­ten a game is a mo­ment in time and you should leave it there.

JS I find with HD ver­sions that they look ex­actly as I re­mem­ber them! I’ll go back and look at the older ver­sion, and the up­date un­doubt­edly looks bet­ter, but it’s not re­mem­bered like that.

TL I had that same feel­ing with the Ico and Shadow Of The Colos­sus re­makes. The only dif­fer­ence I no­ticed was the higher fram­er­ate. It wasn’t dif­fer­ent to how I re­mem­bered. Some­times this kind of re­mas­ter­ing work can be detri­men­tal. On XBLA, for ex­am­ple, I bought the R-Type col­lec­tion [ R-Type Di­men­sions], which had a but­ton to switch be­tween the orig­i­nal graph­ics and the 3D re­make, and the orig­i­nal looked far more pleas­ing to me. ML I think they go over­board some­times. With the re­cent

Od­dworld re­make, there is so much nos­tal­gia for the orig­i­nal 2D ver­sion, so when you switch to the new 3D ver­sion, even though it’s more con­tem­po­rary, it’s quite a lot dif­fer­ent. It usu­ally works bet­ter with 3D to 3D, as in Halo: [ The Mas­ter Chief Col­lec­tion].

How much room do each of you have for per­sonal ex­pres­sion in your work? There are of­ten many cre­ative peo­ple in­volved in the cre­ation of a block­buster game, not to men­tion pub­lish­ers, who have their own say. Do you find that things are flat­tened to ho­mo­gene­ity by feed­back, or can you still recog­nise your hand and in­tent in the work?

NG I think we get a lot of free­dom with the orig­i­nal images we cre­ate. We have a group of artists all work­ing on the same game and I’m still able to dis­tin­guish be­tween the dif­fer­ent artists. We’re all aim­ing for a re­al­is­tic goal, but there are dif­fer­ences.

JS We get left alone enough to get our ideas and aes­thetics in there. We’re work­ing un­der some­what of an um­brella of di­rec­tion, but we have quite a bit of free­dom at the cre­ative stage. It’s when it makes it into the game that it be­comes more of a straight col­lab­o­ra­tion.

DW Of­ten the free­dom comes at the ear­li­est stage and this work doesn’t make it out to the public. It’s called Phase One at BioWare when the artists have the most free­dom. But by the end of the process, the ques­tion of own­er­ship can be­come tricky. The fi­nal im­age of­ten con­tains a great deal of feed­back – even de­sign and pro­gram­ming av­enues have had their say and fed back. It be­comes hard to take full own­er­ship of any­thing in a game. For ex­am­ple, I de­signed the Nor­mandy ship in Mass Ef­fect with Casey Hud­son. Some­one else painted it and did a litho­graph. An­other artist builds the model; an­other, the ef­fects; an­other, the in­te­rior; and an­other, the cin­e­mat­ics. Try­ing to track those changes and au­thor­ship is a chal­lenge. JS We also have that blue-sky phase – we may just be talk­ing to the art direc­tor. But once we’re in pro­duc­tion, we’re of­ten paint­ing over a designer’s mesh and the char­ac­ters have been placed. The gen­eral aes­thetic from the blue-sky phase is car­ried through, but there’s far less own­er­ship once you get into pro­duc­tion.

How do you feel, as artists, about au­di­ence feed­back dur­ing the pro­duc­tion phase? Is there a sense of ir­ri­ta­tion at

hav­ing to ac­count for the au­di­ence’s taste when you have a par­tic­u­lar artis­tic vi­sion? And, if so, how do you man­age the con­flict of artis­tic vi­sion with com­mer­cial im­per­a­tive?

JS Whether or not the feed­back is com­ing from the art field or not, it’s all valid. Ul­ti­mately, you can de­cide what you do with it. I’m not sure how much user feed­back we get from the user­base in terms of art, but per­son­ally there have been The Last Of Us fans who have con­tacted me pri­vately to ask why I did cer­tain things. I will think about their feed­back and look at their cre­den­tials and de­cide what to do with that. Art is so sub­jec­tive and peo­ple will al­ways have opin­ions; you won’t al­ways just re­ceive praise. You have to roll with it.

Fan feed­back you can take on or leave, but what about when it’s a pub­lisher’s di­rec­tive in­stead?

NG Well, that’s the job. It’s a fun part of what we do, though, try­ing to find ways to an­swer this kind of chal­lenge. Also, it’s tough to com­plain when you get to draw for a living. All of the de­sign chal­lenges are fun and come with the job.

DW You can get caught up on that testing phase. Wor­ry­ing about whether the game is be­ing de­signed by ten guys in a shop­ping mall who look at the con­cepts and pick the game cover. But we don’t know ev­ery­thing, so feed­back is valu­able. Big de­ci­sions by higher-ups can get tricky. They don’t come up too of­ten. They tend to be forced by changes to the sched­ule, whereby we have to make ad­just­ments in or­der to meet new dead­lines. But you’re right, it’s our job.

JS Most of the time we come to an agree­ment with a direc­tor or art direc­tor. There’s al­ways a con­ver­sa­tion be­hind th­ese things.

ML Thatgame­com­pany is a lit­tle dif­fer­ent, be­cause we don’t have any­one at the pub­lisher level who can rain down or­ders. We do a lot of testing with peo­ple who don’t play games. We’re only 12 peo­ple, but when we have play testers in, you see all kinds of dif­fer­ent com­ments and re­ac­tions. We once had a guy fall asleep. We of­ten have an over­re­ac­tion to this [ex­ter­nal] feed­back: we fix what­ever they say.

But usu­ally we later back off those changes, as we ex­plore them and see what they are re­ally worth. Some­times you have the chal­lenges of some­one who is fund­ing the game show­ing it to their chil­dren, and pass­ing on their kids’ re­sponse to the team. In ev­ery case, we have a knee-jerk re­ac­tion and then back off a bit. We pro­to­type a lot; we cut a lot of things, too. Of­ten we pro­to­type the feed­back, and in many cases cut it later. We have a kind of de­sign-by-com­mit­tee ap­proach, but with­out the neg­a­tive con­no­ta­tions.

What do you think the main­stream in­dus­try can learn from in­de­pen­dent games at the mo­ment in terms of art de­sign?

JS Just the sim­plic­ity of the art. Look­ing at Jour­ney again, the shapes it uses – ap­ply­ing that sim­plic­ity to re­al­is­tic games can be use­ful. Some­times more stylised games do that best, and there’s lots that can be learned.

ML I have to give ku­dos to Mir­ror’s Edge. It’s both re­al­is­tic and stylised, and felt like it was try­ing to bridge the gap be­tween indie and block­buster. But the game didn’t do so well, so per­haps the style held them back. DW I’m not so sure. I think peo­ple were pretty open to the look of the game, but re­jected some of the game­play. It was too puni­tive and I think word of mouth went around. For me, there’s a large va­ri­ety of games and it’s hard to fol­low some of th­ese in­de­pen­dent ti­tles in the larger stu­dios.

JS It would be in­ter­est­ing if Naughty Dog made a

Jour­ney- style game on the scale of an Un­charted.

DW I think that would only be pos­si­ble by splin­ter­ing down into a smaller group. ML I agree. It’s all about scale. DW BioWare tried that a few times, but it’s hard to get right.

JS Would it not be pos­si­ble with a large team?

DW Per­haps, but you have to start with a small group and build up from there, I think.

NG I think Sun­set Over­drive does quite well with this. It has a stylised, in­de­pen­dent look which I think proves that you can do this kind of unique ap­proach if the en­tire art team is be­hind it. You need the en­tire team to be will­ing, of course.

DW Time will tell with that game.

Is some of this per­haps tied to the hard­ware cy­cle? We’re just over a year into this con­sole gen­er­a­tion, and peo­ple are still look­ing for games to look more re­al­is­tic to show off what their new tech­nol­ogy can do. Do you think that styli­sa­tion typ­i­cally hap­pens later into the con­sole cy­cle?

DW I think that’s true. At the be­gin­ning of the hard­ware cy­cle, you’re wor­ried about whether peo­ple will claim you can’t push the tech­nol­ogy un­less it’s vis­i­ble on­screen.

ML I’m not sure there’s a strong con­nec­tion be­tween the two, but if there is then it’s prob­a­bly fi­nan­cially mo­ti­vated. The launch ti­tles are care­fully cu­rated to ap­peal to the largest pos­si­ble au­di­ence, both in terms of genre but also style.

TL At the same time, I find it’s not nec­es­sary to do things in that way. I love Alien: Iso­la­tion, and that’s a game that looks broadly the same on the pre­vi­ous gen­er­a­tion of con­soles and the newer ones. It’s not so much a mat­ter of see­ing ex­tra poly­gons. What sold it to me were the light­ing, the at­mos­phere and the style.

Now that faces can be mod­elled in such ex­quis­ite de­tail, cap­tur­ing the like­nesses of ac­tors such as Kevin Spacey, what do you think are the great chal­lenges in char­ac­ter de­sign?

DW Well, we can make the faces look pretty re­al­is­tic, but we still can’t an­i­mate them to look re­al­is­tic. The nu­ances in fa­cial an­i­ma­tion are prob­lem­atic.

TL Even with pre­re­corded, mo­tion-cap­tured stuff, [a lot of an­i­ma­tion] still looks un­canny.

JS That said, I had a hard time killing Kevin Spacey in the new Call Of Duty.

ML I think Call Of Duty: Ad­vanced War­fare is def­i­nitely the state of the art in this re­gard. Even so, while the faces look great, we still seem blocked on fa­cial an­i­ma­tion.

How about the ap­proach taken by LA Noire?

ML I don’t know. I heard of lot of peo­ple talk­ing about the un­canny val­ley with that game.

DW Yes, but you get that a lot. The ques­tion is: do you stop, or try to blast through the wall and con­tinue go­ing? A lot of peo­ple are aim­ing for this, so it will be fig­ured out at some point. But the chal­lenges are sig­nif­i­cant. With a game like Dragon Age: In­qui­si­tion, where you have 80,000 lines of dia­logue, how do you de­fine stan­dards? There’s a lot to be thought about with cin­e­mat­ics and the player-de­signed char­ac­ters that star in them.

Also, if you choose mo­tion cap­ture, some­times the tech­nol­ogy can be too in­tru­sive for an ac­tor. Like, if you have to tape balls to their faces dur­ing a take: “I’m try­ing to act and I can’t move my head!” Ide­ally, you want all of the ac­tors in the scene to­gether and act­ing in a room, but right now you have to break them up.

Pro­ce­dural gen­er­a­tion is be­com­ing more preva­lent for world art cre­ation. How does your artis­tic over­sight work with pro­ce­du­rally gen­er­ated worlds?

JS For me, it pro­vides a good jump­ing-off point. You set up ran­dom world el­e­ments that can then be moved by hand later. Putting the con­trol into things af­ter­wards is a good way to art di­rect things af­ter the fact. DW Yes, you hope for happy ac­ci­dents and choose the best bits. ML It’s a bit like our world, where peo­ple pick out the best spots and build houses on them.

What do you hope the au­di­ence will take away from the New Hori­zons ex­hi­bi­tion?

NG The re­al­i­sa­tion of how many artists are in­volved in game cre­ation. I hope that will build ap­pre­ci­a­tion for our work and the process. For me, it’s an ed­u­ca­tion thing, demon­strat­ing that artists put them­selves into the games as well. JS [I’m hop­ing for] ex­po­sure to peo­ple who might not think they are in­ter­ested in videogames, but who catch some­thing in the art they see here. That would be amaz­ing. I would be de­lighted if there is a kid who goes to the ex­hibit, sees a piece that speaks to him and then de­cides to pur­sue this as a vo­ca­tion.

DW We’ve all done tours of our stu­dios where you take kid around and they’re to­tally si­lent, then you later heard from the par­ents how much they loved the work. Some­times th­ese things can lead to a ca­reer.

TL I hope that peo­ple get to un­der­stand the mix­ture of in­flu­ences, both from fine art into game art and vice versa, and that peo­ple will broaden their hori­zons at both ends of this.

DW I like the idea of re­mov­ing the con­troller as a bar­rier. So of­ten, peo­ple don’t ap­proach games be­cause of that bar­rier. Re­mov­ing that is a huge step.

TL That was the hard part about the ex­hi­bi­tion. How do you build an ex­hibit that is open to ev­ery­one? If you have con­trollers, some peo­ple will walk past feel­ing ex­cluded. How to ex­hibit this kind of work cor­rectly is a dif­fi­cult ques­tion. I think we’ve made a good start here, but there’s more to go.

ML I like that it’s push­ing ac­ces­si­bil­ity. I think when­ever you see some­thing on a wall, it’s given cre­dence and stature. And per­haps peo­ple who didn’t grow up play­ing games will see that and re­alise that th­ese games aren’t made by su­per-vi­o­lent peo­ple, but peo­ple who have other ideas and am­bi­tions.

“I like the idea of re­mov­ing the con­troller as a bar­rier. So of­ten peo­ple don’t ap­proach games be­cause of that. Re­mov­ing that is a huge step”

Photography Jip Moors

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