1 Low frequency content such as basslines and kick drums almost always work best either in mono or with an incredibly narrow stereo footprint. Most of what we’re exploring through this Toolkit only applies to frequencies from the mid-range upwards. 2 Auto-panners are key to making mixes sound wider. If there’s a sound in your track which would benefit from moving (either smoothly, or jumping) from side to side, great. Even a single musical element moving in a mix whose other sounds are all fixed in position can help to make a difference to our perception of the mix width. 3 Explore mid/side (M/S) effects. These let you independently process the middle signal (which is monocompatible, with equal content in both channels) and the side signal (the ‘difference’ between left and right signals). Separating the timbral footprint of the two often, again, gives us a sense of width.