Indicators of family and domestic violence in adult victims Physical: bruising, fractures, chronic pain, fresh scars or minor cuts, terminations of pregnancy, complications during pregnancy, gastrointestinal disorders, sexually transmitted diseases and strangulation. Psychological: depression, anxiety, self-harming behaviour, eating disorders, phobias, somatic disorders, sleep problems, impaired concentration, harmful alcohol use, licit and illicit drug use, physical exhaustion and suicide attempts. Emotional: shame, anger, no support networks, feelings of worthlessness and hopelessness. Social/financial: homelessness, unemployment, financial debt, no friends or family support, isolation and parenting difficulties Demeanour: unconvincing explanations of any injuries, describing a partner as controlling or prone to anger, being accompanied by their partner who does most of the talking, anxiety in the presence of a partner, needing to be back home by a certain time and reluctance to follow advice.
Indicators of family and domestic violence in child victims Unborn children: premature birth, miscarriage, low birth weight, foetal injury, foetal death. Babies and toddlers: frequent crying and signs of irritability and anxiety, underweight for age, physical injury, neglect, sexual abuse, very demanding or very passive, wary of new people and startle easily, feeding or sleep difficulties and delayed mobility. Pre-schoolers: eating and sleeping difficulties, concentration problems, inability to play constructively, clinginess, fearfulness, numbing, increased arousal, adjustment problems, developmental delay and physical complaints. School age/pre-adolescent: defiant behaviour, rebelliousness, temper tantrums, cruelty to pets, physical abuse of others, avoidance of peers, overly compliant behaviour, withdrawal, loss of interest in social activities, self-harm, poor school performance. Adolescents: dropping out of school, academic failure, delinquency/offending, eating disorders, substance misuse, depression, suicide ideation, use of controlling behaviours, distrust of adults, violent behaviours, violence toward a parent (particularly their mother), early pregnancy.