This hand occurred in a recent session at the club and the auction was simple. South having only four or five losers, after an opening bid which shows seven losers, and had an easy raise to game. West led the 2C. South could see ten tricks in the form of two diamond tricks and a diamond ruff, one club and one heart trick and five trump tricks if they could be held to one loser. East won the first trick with the AC and returned a small club. The third diamond is not a loser, since it will be ruffed, so it is clear to discard a heart. Declarer then played a trump to the ace and found the bad news that there appeared to be two trump losers. Since there was no way of avoiding the heart loser, declarer has to endplay West in trumps to avoid two trump losers. The priority in this kind of play is for declarer to reduce their trump length to the same as that of the defender by taking some ruffs. So declarer needs two ruffs. Only one of these can be a club ruff because East returned a small club showing an original holding of two or four cards.
Pairs, Both vul, Dealer South
Also, West played the JC and not the 9C or 10C so the club position is clear and declarer has only one club ruff and needs one heart ruff. So play a diamond to the KD and ruff a club. Then play AD and ruff a diamond and come off table with a heart to the KH. West will probably take this and return a heart to the QH. Now, ruff the last heart and with only three cards remaining the only trumps left are:
Now simply exit with either the JS or 9S and, after winning that trick, West is forced to lead away from the other honour. This reduces the trump losers to just one and the contract makes. The trump endplay is one method of dealing with bad trump splits but declarer must realise the urgency of reducing their trump length to be the same as that of the defender.