1556: Death of St Ignatius of Loyola, Spanish soldier and priest who founded the Society of Jesus (the Jesuits). 1812: A year after independence,
Venezuela falls to the Spanish. 1886: Death of Franz Liszt, Hungarian
composer and pianist. 1912: The world’s first film censorship law is passed in the US, preventing the interstate transportation of films showing prize fights. 1944: US troops break through the German lines around the Normandy beachhead, opening the way to liberating the rest of France. 1954: Mount Godwin-Austen (K2) in the Himalayas is first climbed by an Italian expedition led by Ardito Desio. 1990: US government panel approves use of gene therapy for first time in treatment of human disease. 2012: Three Indian electric grids collapse, cutting power to 620 million people in the world’s biggest blackout. 2015: Four people including members of the Bin Laden family are killed in a jet crash in the UK. 2016: Harry Potter fans around the world queue ahead of the release of the eighth book in the series, Harry Potter and the Cursed Child (above).