Limitations of the traditional apprenticeship model: ■ A trend for surgeons to work fewer hours, which limits trainees’ exposure to operations. ■ Prolonged training has resulted in a shortage of skilled surgeons. ■ Patients are less willing to be used as guinea pigs. ■ The high and often hidden costs of medical error. Advantages of simulators in surgical training: ■ High-end simulators can closely mimic the surgeon’s real-life operating experience. ■ The more times a surgeon performs a procedure, the better for patients. ■ Trainees can be taught how to peform even rare procedures, without having to wait for a case through the hospital doors. ■ Improves technical skills training while decreasing the time it takes. ■ Enables repetitive learning for reinforcement. ■ Creates opportunities to objectively measure performance. ■ Surgeons can upskill on new or advanced techniques.