Milk, anti-malar­ial drug work on di­a­betes

The Weekend Australian - Travel - - Health - THE PULSE Com­piled by Dr Chris­tine White

CAL­CIUM and vi­ta­min D are not only im­por­tant for healthy bones, they could pro­tect against di­a­betes. Drink­ing more milk — a rich source of both of th­ese nu­tri­ents — de­creases the risk of type 2 di­a­betes by nearly 15 per cent, ac­cord­ing to a new study in the Jour­nalofClin­i­calEn­docrinol­o­gyand Me­tab­o­lism . Re­searchers com­bined the re­sults from all of the pre­vi­ous stud­ies look­ing at the link be­tween cal­cium, vi­ta­min D and di­a­betes. Com­pared to those get­ting fewer than 1.5 serv­ings of milk and milk prod­ucts per day, those with the high­est dairy in­take (three to five serv­ings per day) had a nearly 15 per cent lower risk of de­vel­op­ing type 2 di­a­betes. The au­thors sug­gest that cal­cium and vi­ta­min Dmay af­fect the body’s abil­ity to pro­duce or use in­sulin, the sugar-pro­cess­ing hor­mone that is im­paired in di­a­bet­ics. JClinEn­docrinolMetab 2007;92:2017-2029 (Pit­tas AG, et al) DRUGS that pro­tect against malaria may also pre­vent di­a­betes in pa­tients with rheumatoid arthri­tis, claims a study in the latest is­sue of the Jour­naloftheAmer­i­can Med­i­calAs­so­ci­a­tion . The anti-malar­ial drug hy­drox­y­chloro­quine has long been a safe and in­ex­pen­sive treat­ment for joint in­flam­ma­tion in rheumatoid arthri­tis. The study in­cluded 4905 adults with rheumatoid arthri­tis — 1808 had taken hy­drox­y­chloro­quine and 3097 had never taken the drug. None of the pa­tients showed any di­a­betes symp­toms at the start of the study, and they were fol­lowed for an av­er­age of 21.5 years. Dur­ing this time, di­a­betes was di­ag­nosed in 54 pa­tients who had taken hy­drox­y­chloro­quine and in 171 pa­tients who had never taken it. Those who had taken hy­drox­y­chloro­quine for any length of time had a 38 per cent lower risk of de­vel­op­ing di­a­betes com­pared with those who had not. Pa­tients who took hy­drox­y­chloro­quine for more than four years had a 77 per cent lower risk of di­a­betes com­pared with those who had never taken the drug. JAMA 2007;298:187-193 (Wasko MCM, et al) AN­TIDE­PRES­SANTS lower the risk of sui­cide in adults with de­pres­sion, and the same holds true in young peo­ple aged 18 to 25, con­cludes a new study in the Amer­i­can Jour­nalofPsy­chi­a­try . In 2004, the US Food and Drug Ad­min­is­tra­tion is­sued a warn­ing that the an­tide­pres­sants called SSRIs (se­lec­tive sero­tonin re­up­take in­hibitors) may ac­tu­ally in­crease the risk of sui­ci­dal be­hav­iour in chil­dren. Late last year they also rec­om­mended ex­tend­ing this warn­ing to young adults. In the study pub­lished this week, re­searchers an­a­lysed the med­i­cal records of 226,866 pa­tients di­ag­nosed with de­pres­sion in 2003 or 2004. They com­pared the risk of sui­cide in four age groups (18-25, 26-45, 46-65 and older than 65) be­fore and af­ter treat­ment with SSRIs. In all adult age groups, treat­ment with SSRIs sig­nif­i­cantly low­ered the risk of at­tempt­ing sui­cide com­pared to no an­tide­pres­sant treat­ment. AmJPsy­chi­a­try 2007;164:1044-1049 (Gib­bons RD, et al) AN­TIBI­OTICS won’t stop fu­ture uri­nary tract in­fec­tions (UTIs) in chil­dren, finds a study in the Jour­naloftheAmer­i­canMed­i­cal As­so­ci­a­tion this week. In fact, giv­ing chil­dren a daily dose of an­tibi­otics af­ter such an in­fec­tion may lead to fu­ture in­fec­tions be­ing re­sis­tant to an­tibi­otics and more dif­fi­cult to treat. Re­searchers ex­am­ined the med­i­cal records of 74,974 chil­dren aged six years and younger, and iden­ti­fied those who were di­ag­nosed with their first UTI be­tween July 2001 and May 2006. There were 611 chil­dren with a first UTI and 83 of th­ese had a re­cur­rent UTI. Chil­dren aged three to four years were 2.75 times more likely to have a re­cur­rent UTI than chil­dren in the other age groups. And those with a con­di­tion in which there is back­flow of urine from the blad­der to­wards the kid­neys were 4.4 times more likely to have a re­cur­rent UTI. Chil­dren tak­ing an­tibi­otics were not pro­tected against re­cur­rent UTIs, and were 7.5 times more likely to con­tract an an­tibi­otic-re­sis­tant in­fec­tion. JAMA 2007;298:179-186 (Con­way PH, et al) PAINFUL mem­o­ries can be de­lib­er­ately sup­pressed, ac­cord­ing to new re­search pub­lished in Science this week, which may lead to new treat­ments for a range of psy­chi­atric con­di­tions in­clud­ing post­trau­matic stress dis­or­der and de­pres­sion. Dur­ing the train­ing phase of the study, 16 par­tic­i­pants were asked to learn 40 dif­fer­ent pairs of pic­tures, each con­sist­ing of a ‘‘ neu­tral’’ hu­man face and a dis­turb­ing pic­ture such as a car crash, a wounded sol­dier, a vi­o­lent crime scene or an elec­tric chair. In the ex­per­i­men­tal phase, they were shown only the faces and asked to ei­ther think about or de­lib­er­ately not think about the dis­turb­ing im­age as­so­ci­ated with each face. Us­ing mag­netic res­o­nance imag­ing (MRI) to high­light ar­eas of brain ac­tiv­ity, re­searchers dis­cov­ered that two re­gions of the brain are only ac­tive dur­ing me­mory sup­pres­sion. Th­ese ar­eas are un­der con­scious con­trol, and can pre­vent the brain from re­triev­ing emo­tional mem­o­ries. Science 2007;317:215-219 (Depue BE, et al) AMER­I­CANS and other Western­ers find it dif­fi­cult to see things from some­one else’s point of view, say the au­thors of a new study in Psy­cho­log­i­calS­cience , be­cause their cul­tures en­cour­age in­di­vid­u­al­ism. In con­trast, the study found that Chi­nese peo­ple liv­ing in a more com­mu­nal so­ci­ety are much bet­ter at de­ter­min­ing an­other per­son’s per­spec­tive. The study in­volved two groups of univer­sity stu­dents — one con­sist­ing of 20 peo­ple from China and an­other group of 20 non-Asian Amer­i­cans. Peo­ple of the same cul­tural group paired up and worked to­gether to move ob­jects around in a grid of squares placed be­tween them. One per­son (the ‘‘ di­rec­tor’’) told the other per­son (the ‘‘ sub­ject’’) where the ob­jects should be moved, but some of the ob­jects were ob­scured from the di­rec­tor’s view. Tak­ing into ac­count the other per­son’s per­spec­tive was more work for the Amer­i­cans, who spent on av­er­age around twice as much time com­plet­ing the moves as the Chi­nese. Psy­cholSci 2007;18:600-606 (Wu S, et al) Want to know more? Items are ref­er­enced where pos­si­ble. A ref­er­ence such as ‘‘ 2007;35:18-25’’ means the source ar­ti­cle was pub­lished on pages 18-25 in vol­ume num­ber 35 of the pub­li­ca­tion, in 2007. A doi num­ber or web­site ad­dress is used for re­search pub­lished on a jour­nal’s web­site.

Di­a­betes: Helped by drugs from other treat­ment regimes

Newspapers in English

Newspapers from Australia

© PressReader. All rights reserved.