Richard III

凱特•穆爾瓦尼的《理查三世》

Vision Magazine - - Contents - english Text By ste­fa­nia cox作者:金翼

來自悉尼的貝爾莎士比亞公司,在藝術中心為墨爾本的戲迷們獻上了一台莎士比亞的名劇《理查三世》。我一貫對莎翁情有獨鍾,豈能錯過這一送上門的機會!而觀賞具有五百多年歷史的莎翁劇目,故事內容已無懸念,最大的看點是導演與演員的舞台再創造。亦即:戲法還是那老一套,就看你怎麼玩兒。

這回,導演彼得‧埃文斯(Pe­ter Evans)及他的藝術團隊玩兒得頗為瀟灑。三面觀眾的半圓舞台,看不見中世紀金雀花王朝的陰森古堡,唯見一堂現代上流社會客廳的佈景,金絲絨的躺椅,幾把亞麻布的古典椅子,兩台茶几,加上弧形背景前的兩個酒吧台座。十分顯眼的是背景中央三層高大的櫃子裡,莫名其妙地陳列著半身黑色塑料模特裝飾,打破了家具實用性的和諧,平添了先鋒派的風格。沒有大幕的起落,原劇本五幕戲的佈景轉換,全憑燈光的變幻,以及在音樂、音響及演員的和聲演唱中,由場上演員挪動、重組那些家具來表現。

十名演員,承擔著劇本中數十個角色,除了理查王,其他人均身兼數職。他們出場後,並不下場,時而王公貴人,時而士兵兇手,時而王子皇后,時而群眾市民。戲到時,呼之即出,燈光下激情四射。無戲時,揮之即去,幽暗處靜坐低飲。服裝設計也與佈景原則相似,西式晚禮服頗像墨爾本盃賽馬節人們的盛裝,但看不出時代和地方特 徵。甚至更換服裝,也不下場,就當著觀眾,在舞台後區燈光陰暗處悄然進行。

所有這些導演手段和創作,都清楚地告訴我們,這個《理查三世》玩兒的不是歷史情景的再現,而是「象徵」。這種象徵,又恰恰是舞台戲劇的本質和魅力,如同孩子「過家家」,一切都是假的,真不真全憑演員,演到逼真時,就會調動觀眾的想像力,來加強和豐富這種劇場的真實。不過,貝爾公司玩兒的「象徵」,並沒有令我感到意外,因為,當今世界各國很多劇團,幾乎都是用「象徵」的手法來演繹莎士比亞的。同時,也沒有驚喜,因為中國的傳統戲曲,整個舞台就是象徵的,一張桌子,兩把椅子,演繹出了多少悲歡離合陰晴圓缺啊,所以說,您玩兒的,咱見過。

然而,有一個演員,卻令我驚奇不已。那就是理查三世的扮演 者, 凱 特 ‧ 穆 爾 瓦 尼(Kate Mul­vany)。首先,天哪,這是個女演員!一個女演員,而且是一個面貌相當清秀的女演員,來演一個相貌醜陋、陰險毒辣,殺侄篡位,十

Bell Shake­speare’s 2017 pro­duc­tion of Richard 3 is a com­pelling and dark ren­di­tion of one of Shake­speare’s great­est his­tory plays. It is one of his very first plays, and helped es­tab­lish his might as a lit­er­ary heavy­weight in the English canon. It tells the story of one of Shake­speare’s vilest vil­lains, King Richard III of Eng­land, who be­set by a crip­pled phys­i­cal form and a char­ac­ter of con­tempt, ruth­lessly slayed any­one in the way of the throne. over four hun­dred years since its in­cep­tion, this bril­liant work is still a stark re­minder of the cycli­cal na­ture of hu­man his­tory, and the lessons yet to be learnt.

And here, there is also an un­easy seed of hope. Aus­tralia’s muchcel­e­brated ac­tress Kate Mul­vany gives breath to the lead­ing role, ex­press­ing a light­ness and youth­ful vul­ner­a­bil­ity through the haze of this char­ac­ter’s ha­tred. As the lights come up on a mod­ern cock­tail lounge, we see an un­apolo­get­i­cally con­structed set (of Anna Cord­ing­ley’s de­sign), and un­der­stand that this could be any place, and any time. And yet, the

chore­og­ra­phy and stag­ing all con­spire to cre­ate a very spe­cific sense of im­pend­ing doom; an eerie lament for fu­ture tres­passes. All vis­ual el­e­ments throw us off-bal­ance; ev­ery­thing is slightly off-cen­tre, sub­con­sciously un­set­tling and static. It is in this con­text that we first meet Richard, hunched in a black suit. He glances up at the au­di­ence and smiles.

From that moment, Kate Mul­vany’s fiercely nu­anced de­pic­tion of the King con­spires to have us un­wit­tingly sym­pa­this­ing with him. Even as his atroc­i­ties un­ravel, the charm in his so­lil­o­quies build and main­tain our con­nec­tion with the King as a mul­ti­fac­eted – if com­pletely cor­rupted – crea­ture. Through the events of blood­shed and be­trayal, mur­der­ing his kin and their al­lies one by one, this ‘bot­tled spi­der’, ‘lump of foul de­for­mity’ and ‘poi­sonous, bunch-back’d toad’ re­mains in com­mand of the way we en­counter this story, by virtue of his abil­ity to comment on it.

As the play pro­gresses, how­ever, and the King’s deeds weigh in­creas­ingly heav­ily on him, the iso­la­tion and para­noia es­ca­lates, and he can no longer break away from the ac­tion in which he is mired, to speak to us. Corpses are strewn about the stage, the bod­ies of those clos­est to him. He ap­pears weaker and frailer than be­fore. And as he is fi­nally chal­lenged to bat­tle by the Earl of Rich­mond, one of the few re­main­ing char­ac­ters, he is soon de­feated.

In Shake­speare’s orig­i­nal script, Rich­mond spoke the last lines of the play, and so the King was truly si­lenced and fi­nally, mer­ci­fully, de­feated. Mu­lany’s adap­ta­tion, how­ever, brings in an ex­tra layer of com­plex­ity. It is not the vic­tor Rich­mond, but the King, who speaks last. From his deathbed comes forth in­spi­ra­tion sourced from the last act of Shake­speare’s play Henry VI, part III.

Though he is still as un­apolo­get­i­cally dis­gusted, he is again self-con­sciously so, and in that, we gain an op­por­tu­nity to sym­pa­thise and feel the full dev­as­ta­tion of his life through his eyes. He says, "I have no brother, I am like no brother; And this word 'love,' which gray­beards call di­vine, Be res­i­dent in men like one an­other And not in me: I am my­self alone."

Ef­fort­lessly paint­ing a world strained by the con­ta­gion of greed, Richard 3 still some­how de­liv­ers hope. Through the com­ple­tion of an­other cy­cle – the end of de­gen­er­ate things and the sur­vival of good­ness (in Rich­mond’s tri­umph), in this adap­ta­tion, even the King is given an op­por­tu­nity to re­flect, and in do­ing so, he shows his hu­man­ity.

And clearly, with yet an­other stand­ing ova­tion, af­ter more than four hun­dred years on the stage, Richard 3 still has a lot to say.

惡不赦的暴君!全劇是從理查三世的獨白開始的,當觀眾席的燈光暗去,舞檯燈光升起,他(她)慢慢地轉身,一雙大眼睛,充滿了狡詐、陰險、甚至還有點戲弄的神氣,向觀眾席緩緩掃射,這眼神充滿能量,震懾全場。隨即她輕鬆張口,底氣十足的雄渾女中音,將莎翁的詩句韻律有緻地吟誦出來。她沒有刻意地女扮男裝,除了頭髮剪短,仍是一個金髮女郎。她將這個

人人皆知的壞蛋國王,演化成了一個有點陰柔的,英俊的大男孩形象。

儘管,她將理查的形體造型雕刻地無懈可擊:駝背,跛足,一瘸一拐,兩個多小時的演出,直到謝幕時,才發現她可以正常地挺胸站直。但是,她似乎並沒有僅僅追求「形似」,而是通過心靈情感的「神似」,迫使觀眾對這個帥氣而又極為孤獨痛苦的殘疾人產生同情,從而幾乎相信他殺人罪惡的合理性。她向觀眾展覽了一個對人生有著渴望追求,但只能通過狡詐與血腥來實現的悲劇人物。不過分地說,正

是她滿台生輝的精湛表演,使得演出大獲成功。

其實,歷史上有兩個理查三世。一個是真實的理查,國王愛德華四

世的弟弟,不僅驍勇善戰,據考證還對英國的法律完善有所建樹。後人傳說他殺死了兩個侄子,奪取了王位,但至今沒有任何證據。 還有一個,就是莎翁筆下的惡魔,詩人以天才的功力,使人們忽略了歷史的理查,而只記住了莎翁的理查。但是,莎翁的理查又究竟是甚麼樣的呢?那就要看演員的功力了。而這回,澳大利亞影、視、劇三棲明星、劇作家凱特‧穆爾瓦尼,以她非凡的功力,為戲迷們獻上了一個活生生真實可信的理查三世,將我徹底征服。

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