塔斯曼尼亞

艷與野的交匯點

Vision Magazine - - Destinations - english Text by ava Zhang Chi­nese Text by ge­or­gia xia PHOTO CREDIT: TOURISM AUS­TRALIA, TOURISM TAS­MA­NIA

說不上經濟繁榮,談不到舒適生活,更沒有發達交通。作為澳洲唯一的島州塔斯馬尼亞卻坐擁世界聞名的自然景觀,每一處都美得讓人窒息,每一個角落都散發著天然野性的氣息,這就是它吸引著觀光客的獨特魅力。

dutch ex­plorer Abel Tas­man was the first per­son to sight Tas­ma­nia in 1642. He chris­tened the is­land af­ter his pa­tron, Anthoonji van diemenslandt who was the governor of the dutch East Indies. When the Bri­tish first set­tled east of the der­went es­tu­ary in 1803, they short­ened the name to van die­man’s land. A sec­ond set­tle­ment was es­tab­lished a year later to the west of the der­went River where there was an abun­dant sup­ply of fresh wa­ter.

This sec­ond set­tle­ment was dubbed Ho­bart Town, af­ter the Bri­tish Colo­nial Sec­re­tary lord Ho­bart. Ele­gantly sit­u­ated on the hills above the der­went River, the capital of Tas­ma­nia re­tains much of its orig­i­nal colo­nial her­itage and still en­joys a down to earth coun­try at­mos­phere de­spite its city sta­tus.

Ho­bart is fa­mous for its his­toric World Her­itage sites in­clud­ing the con­vict sites of Port Arthur and the Cas­cades Fe­male Fac­tory, a pur­pose built, self-con­tained in­sti­tu­tion in­tended to re­form fe­male con­victs. The city is sur­rounded by a sweep­ing nat­u­ral land­scape which af­fords its rep­u­ta­tion as one of Aus­tralia’s most beau­ti­ful cities.

Indige­nous peo­ple had lived on the is­land for at least 35,000 years be­fore white set­tle­ment. Abo­rig­i­nal dream­time sto­ries tell of the cre­ation of Trowenna, the present day Tas­ma­nia. In the be­gin­ning, when all of cre­ation was tak­ing shape, Trowenna was a small sand­bank in the great south­ern seas. Trowenna en­dured through dark­ness and light and kept on through the Ice Age. One day, Puy­win (the sun) and his wife venna (the moon) rose from the sea and tra­versed the sky, drop­ping seeds for the great gumtree, tara mo­nan­dro and plants onto Trowenna. Rain fell the next day to help tara mo­nan­dro grow, and the seeds be­gan to sprout. Shell­fish of ev­ery shape and size ap­peared in the sur­round­ing wa­ters. The leaves of the trees and plants mixed with the sand to be­come soil. The shell­fish grew and be­came ever more plen­ti­ful, and as they died, they formed the rocks and stones of the moun­tains. Trowenna grad­u­ally grew and emerged from the south­ern seas, even­tu­ally break­ing away from the main­land to be­come the unique is­land that we know to­day.

文明與野蠻

相傳,一萬年前的冰河時期結束前,今天的塔斯曼島與澳洲大陸是相連的,然而冰河融化的雪水慢慢切斷了連接部分,形成了一片汪洋的巴斯海峽。

在塔島的歷史中,土著人在冰河時期已經定居在這裡,大量的土著人過著與世隔絕的原始生活。

十七世紀中葉,荷蘭探險家亞伯‧塔斯曼(Abel Tas­man)無意間從 Black­mans Bay 登陸,他是第一 個踏上這塊近7萬平方公里島嶼的歐洲人,並為之取名「An­thony van Diemen's Land」,以紀念當時派遣塔斯曼航海探險的荷蘭駐東印度群島總督。

一個世紀之後,法國探險家、英國探險家以及庫克船長等先後登上了這塊原始的土地。直到18 世紀末年,才正式確認這是一塊獨立的島嶼。1803年,新州政府宣佈擁有這塊殖民地。1854年更名為塔斯曼尼亞。1901年,塔斯曼尼亞成為澳洲聯邦政府的一個獨立州。

如同澳洲各地的起源史,這塊島嶼在被英國殖民者佔領後,馬上成為流放和關押歐洲罪犯的場所。據記載,澳洲的流放犯中,至少有百分之四十被送到了塔島上進行開拓,犯人總數高達幾萬之多,島上也因此建立起大量的監獄。位於塔斯曼尼亞首都霍巴特的著名港口Port Auther 至今保留著當時關押罪犯的地方。

土著人的血淚

大批歐洲人的遷入,開始搶佔土著人賴以生存的土地,強迫土著人放棄游獵生活,並以奴役的方式為白人服務。白人的野蠻霸道不但無法令自由自在的土著人適應,也完全打破了他們的原始生活方式。此外,歐洲人給當地帶來了大量疾病和飢餓。於是,土著人開始聯合起來進行保衛家園的反抗,卻遭到英國軍人的大規模射殺。當時的殖民者把土著人視作與袋鼠同類的動物,可以任意屠殺。

澳洲的歷史把這場衝突稱之為「黑色戰爭」,但後人卻稱它為「種族滅絕」行動。在雙方力量懸殊的情況下,殖民者通過驅趕和滅殺,在不到 30年的時間內,將當地土著人的人口從5千以上降到了3 百之下。

縱觀澳洲歷史,無論是生活在哪個州的原住民都曾經歷了相當黑暗的一段時期,而唯獨塔州原住民的遭遇特別慘烈。

Mount Welling­ton

At 1,270 me­tres high, Mount Welling­ton tow­ers over the beau­ti­ful city of Ho­bart. Clim­bers are re­warded with a stun­ning view of the d’en­tre­cateaux Chan­nel and der­went River from its peak. The moun­tain is com­posed of do­lerite rock that was formed over 175 mil­lion years ago, when molten magma reached the Earth’s sur­face and spread lat­er­ally, slowly cool­ing into the present day rock. Cap­tain Bligh first sighted the moun­tain in 1785 and named it Ta­ble Hill.

The Royal Tas­ma­nian Botan­i­cal Gar­dens

The area that was of­fi­cially recog­nised as Tas­ma­nia’s Royal Botan­i­cal Gar­dens in 1818 be­gan as a piece of rough bush­land that was granted to an ex-con­vict for cul­ti­va­tion. Wil­liam david­son, the Gar­den’s first su­per­in­ten­dent, col­lected over 150 na­tive spec­i­mens from Mount Welling­ton and com­bined these with plants he im­ported from Bri­tain to cul­ti­vate the area into an el­e­gant court­yard. The gar­dens flour­ished and re­main a pop­u­lar site for rest and recre­ation to this day.

Port Arthur

Port Arthur was es­tab­lished in 1830 and was mod­elled as "a ma­chine for grind­ing rogues into hon­est men". The sta­tion im­ple­mented strict dis­ci­pline, pun­ish­ment, re­li­gious in­struc­tion and ed­u­ca­tion. Re­ha­bil­i­tated con­victs left Port Arthur and re­turned to so­ci­ety as skilled work­men. Port Arthur be­came an in­sti­tu­tion for ag­ing and ill con­victs when con­vict trans­porta­tion ceased in 1853.

Sala­manca Place, Bat­tery Point, Ris­don Cove, An­gle­sea Bar­racks, the Franklin River and the Cad­bury Fac­tory are just a few of the must­see places on this is­land chock full of trea­sure!

歷史的痕跡

依據最新的考古發現,早在 7萬年前,土著人就已經生活在澳洲這片土地上。但從何時開始定居塔州暫無歷史考證。由於沒有被後人大規模開發,大批的原始風貌被保留了下來,許多不為人知的秘密或許正隱藏在這裡。

今日的塔斯曼尼亞有約百分之四十的面積被正式列為國家公園、自然保護區或世界自然遺產。巡遊在這座島嶼上,大自然神來之筆的巧奪天工處處可見,壯觀的古老岩 層、千萬年前的海蝕洞穴、險峻的懸崖崖壁、天然的風化地形、以及獨特的野生動物。

走進霍巴特,現代建築與19 世紀的遺風相融合,殖民時期的痕跡比比皆是,充滿歷史故事的亞瑟港(Port Arthur)見證了塔州的新舊交替。如今,圍繞著當年的監獄建築是一片片的葡萄園,寧靜街面上洋溢著英倫風味。比起澳洲其他城市, 這裡更顯出歐洲特色。

沿著塔斯曼海岸線,橘紅的夕陽穿透了深藍的海水,原始的美艷令人窒息。每一處絕色的畫面,都會印出古老的歷史;每一處的土著文化,都能聞到感傷的氣息。

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