What was Edinburgh like during the reign of Mary, Queen of Scots? In 1544, she was only two years old, so her kingdom was being ruled by regents, but Scotland’s capital was certainly not in its infancy. Using the Virtual Binoculars app or the website version at https://tinyurl.com/ y7etejsg, we can see that it was a thriving city. The essential layout of the city is familiar, arranged around a royal mile that culminated in Holyrood Palace but many aspects are different. The palace that stands today is a baroque structure, whilst the palace of 1544 was gothic in style. In the background, we can see the Abbey, fully intact, when today it is merely a ruin. This visualisation allows you to look around yourself, a bit like Google Street View ( www. google.com/streetview). We have a lot of information about this period because of a surviving map by military engineer Richard Lee who charted the city prior to an English invasion in 1544.