Mys­ter­ies of the Etr­uscans re­vealed A new page opened in Etr­us­col­ogy

Azeri Observer - - Azeri Observer - By FAZIL GUNEY PHD, ORI­EN­TAL­IST

T he Etr­uscan, Pe­las­gian and Tro­jan lan­guages spo­ken in the Mediter­ranean basin be­fore the Latin and Greek lan­guages were brought to the area, are found to have a close re­la­tion­ship with Old Tur­kic lan­guages, and the Tur­kic lan­guages (Chu­vash, Kirghizian, Kazakh, Tatar) spo­ken at our times.

The prob­lem re­lat­ing to the Tro­jan, Etr­uscan and other abo­rig­i­nal lan­guages of the Mediter­ranean basin has re­mained un­solved: the Etr­uscan writ­ings have not been de­ci­phered, a great num­ber of bor­row­ings in Latin and Greek lan­guages are still con­sid­ered to be of un­known ori­gin. Azer­bai­jani lin­guist Chin­giz Garasharlı, Doc­tor of Philo­log­i­cal sciences, as a re­sult of long re­searches has opened a new page in this prob­lem­atic branch of lin­guis­tics, prov­ing the Old Tur­kic ori­gins of the Etr­uscan writ­ings. In his mono­graphs «The Etr­uscans be­gin speak­ing» (2005), «The Early In­hab­i­tants of the Mediter­ranean Basin – Turks (2009), «The Tur­kic Civ­i­liza­tion Lost in the Mediter­ranean Basin (2011, In English) and «The Tro­jans were Turks» (2012) the Etr­uscan texts con­sid­ered by Euro­pean sci­en­tists to be of un­known ori­gin, were proved to be Old Tur­kic. Ac­cord­ing to the re­searcher, the only truth the Euro­pean sci­en­tists know is that «the Etr­uscan lan­guage was a non – Indo – Euro­pean lan­guage. The same is told about the Tro­jan lan­guage spo­ken in the eastern coasts of the Aegean Sea. There­fore the ef­forts to in­ter­pret the ono­mas­ti­con of the Tro­jans, and that of the Pe­las­gians and Thra­cians who spoke the same lan- guage, was not achieved».

Ch.Garasharly as­so­ci­ated the un­suc­cess­ful re­sult of the ex­ist­ing re­searches with the Euro­cen­tric in­den­tion in the works of Euro­pean sci­en­tists, who could not iden­tify the rel­a­tive lan­guages for com­par­a­tive re­search of the early Mediter­ranean lan­guages.

It was just the rea­son of the fail­ure of Indo-Euro­pean re­searchers. He es­tab­lishes that the Etr­uscan, Pe­las­gian and Tro­jan lan­guages spo­ken in the Mediter­ranean basin be­fore the Latin and Greek lan­guages were brought to the area, are found to have a close re­la­tion­ship with Old Tur­kic lan­guages, and the Tur­kic lan­guages (Chu­vash, Kirghizian, Kazakh, Tatar) spo­ken at our times.

Thus, hav­ing found the se­cret of the «40th room» in the Tur­kic lan­guages, Ch.Garasharly proved that the lan­guage of the Etr­uscan writ­ings was not un­known at all as it was al­leged by sci­en­tists. The chap­ters from his above men­tioned books — «the Old Greeks were Pe­las­gians», «The Tur­kic names of the Pe­las­gians», «Ti­ras, the Thra­cians and the Turks», «Turkisms in the Old Greek lan­guage», «The Tro­jan kings of Rome», «Tur­kic names of the Old Scan­di­na­vians» and oth­ers are in fact sep­a­rate re­search works taken alone. His books are in­ter­est­ing equally for both Tur­kic-speak­ing and Euro­pean peo­ples.

As the au­thor writes, nu­mer­ous bor­row­ings con­sid­ered to be of ei­ther

Greek or of Latin ori­gin in up-to-date English, Ger­man, French and other Euro­pean lan­guages are in fact of alien ori­gin. Some of them are thought to be of un­known ori­gin, but they are un­known just for Euro­pean sci­en­tists. If they had drawn such «Greek» and «Latin» words to com­par­i­son with the Old Tur­kic lex­i­con, they would never be faced with such un­cer­tainty. He finds out, that a great num­ber of pre-Greek (Pe­lasgo-Thra­cian) dy­nas­tic names ex­ist in the an­thro­pon­omy of Tur­kic lan­guages – Old Turk, Tatar, Bashkir, Uyghur, Kazakh, Kirghizian, etc. By de­not­ing phys­i­cal or moral su­pe­ri­or­ity, these per­sonal names an­swer the prin­ci­ples of an­thro­pon­omy. Such an­thro­po­nom­i­cal ter­mi­nol­ogy was par­tic­u­larly char­ac­ter­is­tic of an­cient peo­ples. What is more, the ter­mi­nol­ogy of all these names are Tur­kic and they are only ob­served in old and mod­ern Tur­kic lan­guages:

Egey — a mytho­log­i­cal king of Athena, the city which be­longed to the Pe­las­gians. The same name is used in the Tur­kic (Kazakh) lan­guage.

Egey is ei­ther de­rived from the Kirghizia egey («a man with equal power») or con­sists of the Tur­kic ege («prince», «owner») and the suf­fix -y (-ay, -ey), widely used in the Tur­kic lan­guages to form per­sonal names (Bekey, Bakay, Ti­nay, Esey, etc.).

Keney, a pre-Greek per­sonal name is the same Kirghizian Tur­kic Keney, which is de­rived from ken («vast», «spa­cious»).

Elat. In an­cient lit­er­a­ture Keney is pre­sented as the son of Elat, a leg­endary pre-Greek king. It has a Tur­kic coun­ter­part — Ilat, a Tatar per­sonal name. It is de­rived from the Tur­kic ilat «pop­u­la­tion», elat «no­mad», and «no­madic» peo­ple. The same Tur­kic ap­pella­tive is ob­served in old Greek – ilot «the lower layer of peo­ple » , which refers to pre- Greek (Pe­las­gian) sub­stra­tum in old Greek.

We want to nu­mer­ate pos­si­bly more ex­am­ples from his book, as each of them is a weighty fact to show the Tur­kic ori­gins of early Mediter­ranean’s.

Danay. This pre-Greek per­sonal name is com­pletely con­so­nant with the Tur­kic (Kazakh) per­sonal name Danay. A sim­i­lar per­sonal name — Tanay, used in Karachay, Balkar an­thro­pon­omy, was in­ter­preted as con­sist­ing of Tur­kic tang (tan, dang, dan «day­break», «dawn») and the suf­fix -y/-ay to in­di­cate the time of birth. He also con­joins ana­log­i­cal per­sonal name with the word tan – Tan­tuar («born at day­break»), used in the an­thro­pon­omy of the Tatars and Bashkirs.

Er­gin. He is pre­sented in Old Greek mythol­ogy as the son of Po­sei­don. Er­gin has its an­thro­po­nom­i­cal par­al­lel only in Tur­kic lan­guages: Er­gin (Turk­ish), Erkin (Kazakh). De­riv­ing it from the Tur­kic er­gin is rea­son­able for its spe­cific mean­ing to char­ac­ter­ize a per­son both phys­i­cally and morally: «adult», «ma­ture», «free», «self-de­pen­dent». Er­gin/Erkin, de­rived from the Tur­kic erg/erk («power», «strong», «right»), was also used as an of­fi­cial ti­tle in some Tur­kic lan­guages.

Gerey, as the re­searcher writes, is di­rectly re­ferred to the Pe­las­gians and is com­pletely con­so­nant

with the Tur­kic Gerey. This Tur­kic per­sonal name is con­nected with the Tur­kic ap­pella­tive geray, girey («wor­thy», «re­spectable») and was used as an of­fi­cial ti­tle of the Crimean khans. On the ba­sis of this se­man­tics its tran­si­tion to a per­sonal name is quite pos­si­ble.

The river Se­lenga flow­ing in the ter­ri­tory of old Greece, is one the sig­nif­i­cant proof of the au­thor to show the Pe­las­gians Tur­kic re­la­tions. It does not dif­fer from the name of a Siberian river – Se­lenga. It orig­i­nates from the Tur­kic se­leng, se­len («noise», «rum­ble»), an ap­par­ent hy­dronymic term. Sim­i­lar river names (Se­leng, Se­lenj) were used in many ar­eas where Tur­kic peo­ples lived.

How­ever, the in­ter­pre­ta­tion of the pre-Greek Se­lenga by Euro­pean sci­en­tists is quite un­be­liev­able: they de­rived it from two theonyms – Se­lene and Ga, the mytho­log­i­cal Mediter­ranean gods. If they had paid at­ten­tion to the cog­nate Tur­kic river names (Se­lenga, Se­leng), spread in large ar­eas where the Turks lived, they would not have de­rived this river name from any lo­cal eth­nonym.

Ch.Garasharli dis­cov­ers in the an­tho­pon­omy of the Tro­jans a whole group of Tur­kic names, which have ev­i­dent coun­ter­parts in the old Tur­kic, Kazakh, Kirghizian, Chu­vash and other Tur­kic lan­guages. And the in­ter­pre­ta­tion given by him to these names are lin­guis­ti­cally rea­son­able:

Dar­dan, an an­ces­tor of Priam’s gen­er­a­tion, is the e same Kirghizian Dar­dan - a per­sonal name. Anal­ogy of this Tro­jan name ia found by Ch.Garasharli in Tur­kic ono­mas­ti­con. Tur­kic Dar­dan stems from the Kirghizian ap­pella­tive dar­dan, which forms the per­sonal name mean­ing «healthy», «enor­mous», «clumsy». The name (Dar­dan), used today by the Bul­gars to mean «strong man», is the same Kirghizian per­sonal name. The Bul­gar­i­ans must have bor­rowed this name, like many other Tur­kic an­thro­pon­omy, from their Tur­kic an­ces­tors, the old Bul­gar­i­ans.

Al­ber, the name of a Tro­jan com­man­der, is the same Old Tur­kic Alper, de­not­ing «hero», «brave» (O.Turk. alp, alb, «hero», «brave» - er «man»).

The Tro­jans, who set­tled in North Europe af­ter the col­lapse of Troy, left this name in old Ger­manic sagas. «The saga about Ni­belungs» tells us about the albs («heroes») and their king Al­berikh - Tro­jan by ori­gin.

Askan, the name of a Tro­jan hero, is com­pletely con­so­nant with an Old Tur­kic per­sonal name – Askan, used by the Huns. Today it is ob­served in the an­thro­pon­omy of the Tur­kic Al­tays.

Thus, the au­thor finds the names of both Priam and his gen­er­a­tion in Tur­kic an­thro­pon­omy. So many par­al­lels can never be in­ci­den­tal, par­tic­u­larly in the light of old Scan­di­na­vian sto­ries about the Tur­kic ori­gin of the Tro­jans and the Thra­cians, he says.

Tarna, the name of a Tro­jan prov­ince, is the same old Tur­kic Tarna - a Khazar tribal name.

Traces of this eth­nonym are found in Azer­bai­jan and the whole Cau­ca­sus, where tribes­men of Tarneans set­tled.

Ch.Garaşarlı dis­cov­ers Tur­kic names in the ono­mas­ti­con of Old Italy, which is nat­u­ral from his­tor­i­cal point of view. He writes that Ro­man kings with pride re­mem­bered their Tro­jan an­ces­try. Julius Cae­sar bore the name Yul, the son of Eney, a Tro­jan com­man­der, who led the Tro­jan im­mi­grants to Italy. Nu­mer­ous Ro­man names of Tro­jan ori­gin ap­pear to be Old Tur­kic. Yul, for in­stance, is the same Tur­kic Yul, used by the Tatars and Bashkirs as a per­sonal name.

Cae­sar ( ke­sar), ap­plied as a cog­nomen to Ro­man em­per­ors, could have been re­lated to the old

Tur­kic kezer («leader», «hero»), used to de-

note a high ti­tle. It may be a cog­nate of the Kirghizian kaysar («brave», «strong», «coura­geous» whose se­man­tics per­mits its trans­for­ma­tion into a higher ti­tle.

The first com­po­nent (Gay) of the name of Gayus Julius Cae­sar, the Ro­man dic­ta­tor, is com­pa­ra­ble with the old Tur­kic Gay - a tribal name be­long­ing to the Tur­kic tribe Oghuz and with Kay, a Kipchak tribal name.

Es­tab­lish­ing the Tur­kic ori­gins of the Etr­uscan texts is the cul­mi­na­tion point of the re­searcher. Ch.Garasharli has read these texts on sen­tence level, which is a weighty lin­guis­tic proof to in­di­cate the Old Tur­kic ori­gin of the Etr­uscan lan­guage. He es­tab­lishes that a good knowl­edge of the Etr­uscan mythol­ogy of­ten helps with the in­ter­pre­ta­tion of some Etr­uscan mytho­log­i­cal texts; we are go­ing to present a few ex­am­ples from his re­searches on Etr­us­col­ogy:

An Etr­uscan writ­ing on a grave stone sounds as: her­mial kapzna slman.

In an­cient mythol­ogy Her­mes ( Etr­uscan Herme) was con­sid­ered to be the door-keeper of the next world. The pil­lars (herms), erected on burial places, sym­bol­ized guardian­ship of roads, bound­aries and doors. Dam­ag­ing the herms was con­sid­ered a ter­ri­ble sac­ri­lege.

The Etr­uscan writ­ing on a grave pil­lar, her­mial kapzna slman, call­ing peo­ple “not to dam­age Her­mes’s door” is ev­i­dently old Tur­kic. The sen­tence be­gins with the name Herme in the gen­i­tive case (Hermi-al “Her­mes’s”). Though this form of the gen­i­tive case of the noun is char­ac­ter­is­tic of some Cau­casian lan­guages, the fol­low­ing words and mor­pho­log­i­cal el­e­ments are pure Tur­kic: kapzna is Tur­kic kapısına (“to his door”: kapı “door”, - sı the suf­fix, de­not­ing pos­ses­sion to the third per­son sin­gu­lar, and – na the in­di­ca­tor of the da­tive case). The next word – slman is Old Tur­kic sal­man “don’t dam­age”, “don’t at­tack” (sal “to dam­age”, “to beat”, “to at­tack”, - man the suf­fix of nega­tion in Old Tur­kic). It is re­quested “not to dam­age Her­mes’s door” which com­pletely con­forms to the mythol­ogy men- tioned above. The fol­low­ing part of the text sounds as sekhis kapzna. The noun sekhis, which de­fines kapzna ( « to [ its] door » ) , is the old Tur­kic saghis/saghish «the end of the world», «the other world»). The ex­pres­sion sekhis kapzna which, on the ba­sis of the Tur­kic facts, is in­ter­preted as «to the door of the other world», is the log­i­cal con­tin­u­a­tion of the first part:

«Don’t at­tack Her­mes’s door, the door of the other world».

The re­searcher presents one more Etr­uscan pic­ture de­scrib­ing two fight­ing war­riors, one of which is ob­vi­ously beat­ing the other. The vic­to­ri­ous war­rior ut­ters to his coun­ter­part the phrase enk­ten, which is com­pletely as­so­ci­ated with the con­tent of the pic­ture. The au­thor as­so­ciates its mean­ing through the old Tur­kic en­gdin («you are taken aback! », «you be­came flus­tered! »). This is com­pletely con­form­able to the sit­u­a­tion where the war­rior re­ally looks taken aback - his arm be­ing speared by the ar­row of the win­ning soldier. Such ex­am­ples are nu­mer­ous. The re­searcher has de­ci­phered a num­ber of Etr­uscan texts, which were con­sid­ered mys­te­ri­ous by lin­guists.

The num­ber of the Etr­uscan texts de­ci­phered by Ch.Garasharly is nu­mer­ous enough to show the Old Tur­kic ori­gins of the Etr­uscan lan­guage.

Out­stand­ing Azer­bai­jani lin­guists, Hon­ourable mem­bers of Azer­bai­jan Na­tional Academy of Sciences Tofig Ha­jiyev, Nizami Ja­farov, pro­fes­sors Gazan­far Kazimov, Say­ali Sadigova and oth­ers have highly ap­pre­ci­ated the sci­en­tific re­sults gained by Ch.Garasharly.

We only could present to our read­ers some frag­ments from the re­searches of Ch.Garasharli. Within an ar­ti­cle it would nat­u­rally be im­pos­si­ble to present a thor­ough in­for­ma­tion about “The Tur­kic Civ­i­liza­tion lost in the Mediter­ranean Civ­i­liza­tion”, the book re­veal­ing mys­ter­ies of the Mediter­ranean an­ciency. Our read­ers who would wish to wit­ness these mys­ter­ies can get ac­quainted with the book through in­ter­net ( http:/ ebooks. pres­lib. az/ pdf­books/en…garasharli.pdf) and have a con­tact with the au­thor (karasharli@ya­hoo.com).

DR. CHIN­GIZ GARASHARLÝ

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