This year, 584 companies responded to our questionnaire. After cross-checks and verification, we established a ranking of Africa’s top 1,681 companies, which includes reponses from previous years. The top-ranking 500 are published. We apply the same rules to all our data: 1) All financial data must have a clearly defined source, generally communicated to us by the companies themselves, and must refer to the year 2015 (in some cases 2015/2016); 2) If presented in the local currency we convert the data into US dollar amounts according to the rate on 31 December 2015; 3) We include all companies that fall under legal jurisdiction of at least one of the 54 countries in Africa, which is why a holding company and a subsidiary can both feature in the list; and 4) Where we cannot obtain up-to-date figures, we use those of the previous year (marked with an asterisk and italics). After two years of silence, a company is struck off the rankings.