Rep­tiles of Cam­bo­dia

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The Si­amese crocodile is a fresh­wa­ter crocodile na­tive to In­done­sia, Brunei, East Malaysia, Laos, Cam­bo­dia, Burma, Thai­land, and Viet­nam. The species is crit­i­cally en­dan­gered and al­ready gone from many re­gions.

The Si­amese crocodile is a small, fresh­wa­ter crocodil­ian, with a rel­a­tively broad, smooth snout and an el­e­vated, bony crest be­hind each eye. Over­all, it is an olive-green colour, with some vari­a­tion to dark-green. Young spec­i­mens mea­sure 1.2–1.5 m (3.9–4.9 ft) and weigh 6–12 kg (13–26 lb), grow­ing up to 2.1 m (6.9 ft) and a weight of 40–70 kg (88–154 lb) as an adult. The largest fe­male spec­i­mens can mea­sure 3.2 m (10 ft) and weight 150 kg (330 lb) Large male spec­i­mens can reach 4 m (13 ft) and 350 kg (770 lb) in weight. Most adults do not ex­ceed 3 m (10 ft) in length, al­though hy­brids in cap­tiv­ity can grow much larger.

The his­toric range of the Si­amese crocodile in­cluded most of South­east Asia. This species is now ex­tinct in the wild or nearly ex­tinct from most coun­tries ex­cept Cam­bo­dia. For­merly it was found in Cam­bo­dia, In­done­sia (Borneo and pos­si­bly Java), Laos, Malaysia, Thai­land, Viet­nam, Brunei, and Burma.

Si­amese croc­o­diles oc­cur in a wide range of fresh­wa­ter habi­tats, in­clud­ing slow-mov­ing riv-

ers and streams, lakes, sea­sonal oxbow lakes, marshes and swamp­lands.

It is one of the most en­dan­gered croc­o­diles in the wild, al­though it is ex­ten­sively bred in cap­tiv­ity.

The Burmese python is one of the five largest species of snakes in the world (about the third-largest as mea­sured ei­ther by length or weight). It is na­tive to a large vari­a­tion of tropic and sub­tropic ar­eas of South and South­east Asia.

They are of­ten found near wa­ter and are some­times semi-aquatic, but can also be found in trees. Wild in­di­vid­u­als av­er­age 3.7 m (12.1 ft) long, but have been known to reach 5.74 m (18.8 ft) Burmese pythons are found through­out South­ern and South­east Asia, Burmese pythons are also re­ported from Kin­men, very close to the Chi­nese main­land, but in Tai­wanese ter­ri­tory; the Burmese python be­longs to the fauna of Tai­wan when Tai­wan refers to the Re­pub­lic of China, but not to the is­land of Tai­wan.

Th­ese pythons are ex­cel­lent swim­mers and need a per­ma­nent source of wa­ter. They can be found in grass­lands, marshes, swamps, rocky foothills, wood­lands, river val­leys, and jun­gles with open clear­ings. They are good climbers and have pre­hen­sile tails.

Burmese pythons are mainly noc­tur­nal rain­for­est dwellers. When young, they are equally at home on the ground and in trees, but as they gain girth, they tend to re­strict most of their move­ments to the ground. They are also ex­cel­lent swim­mers, be­ing able to stay sub­merged for half an hour.

Like all snakes, the Burmese python is car­niv­o­rous. Its diet con­sists pri­mar­ily of ap­pro­pri­ately sized birds and mam­mals. The snake uses its sharp rear­ward-point­ing

teeth to seize its prey, then wraps its body around it, at the same time con­tract­ing its mus­cles, killing it by con­stric­tion.

The green sea tur­tle, also known as the green tur­tle, black (sea) tur­tle, or Pa­cific green tur­tle, is a large sea tur­tle of the fam­ily Ch­eloni­idae. It is the only species in the genus Ch­elo­nia. Its range ex­tends through­out trop­i­cal and sub­trop­i­cal seas around the world, with two dis­tinct pop­u­la­tions in the At­lantic and Pa­cific Oceans. The com­mon name comes from the usu­ally green fat found be­neath its cara­pace.

This sea tur­tle’s dorsoven­trally flat­tened body is cov­ered by a large, teardrop-shaped cara­pace; it has a pair of large, pad­dle-like flip­pers. It is usu­ally lightly col­ored, al­though in the east­ern Pa­cific pop­u­la­tions parts of the cara­pace can be al­most black. Un­like other mem­bers of its fam­ily, such as the hawks­bill sea tur­tle, The Green Sea Turele is mostly her­biv­o­rous. The adults usu­ally in­habit shal­low la­goons, feed­ing mostly on var­i­ous abun­dant species of sea­grasses.

Like other sea tur­tles, green sea tur­tles mi­grate long dis­tances be­tween feed­ing grounds and hatching beaches. Many is­lands world­wide are known as Tur­tle Is­land due to green sea tur­tles nest­ing on their beaches. Fe­males crawl out on beaches, dig nests and lay eggs dur­ing the night. Later, hatch­lings emerge and scram­ble into the wa­ter. The baby tur­tles that reach ma­tu­rity may live to eighty years in the wild.

It is listed as en­dan­gered by the IUCN and CITES and is pro­tected from ex­ploita­tion in most coun­tries. It is il­le­gal to col­lect, harm or kill them. In ad­di­tion, many coun­tries have laws and or­di­nances to pro­tect nest­ing ar­eas. How­ever, tur­tles are still in dan­ger due to hu­man ac­tiv­ity. In some coun­tries, tur­tles and their eggs are hunted for food. Pol­lu­tion in­di­rectly harms tur­tles at both pop­u­la­tion and in­di­vid­ual scales. Many tur­tles die caught in fish­ing nets. Also, real es­tate de­vel­op­ment of­ten causes habi­tat loss by elim­i­nat­ing nest­ing beaches.

Adult green sea tur­tles mostly eat marine plant life such as kelp and al­gae, while ju­ve­niles have a more car­niv­o­rous diet

The golden fly­ing snake is found in both South and South­east Asia. It is very un­usual in that it is ca­pa­ble of a type of glid­ing flight. It is also rear­fanged. The snake’s strik­ing looks and ca­pa­bil­ity of glid­ing make it a pop­u­lar choice for cap­tiv­ity around the world.

Chrysope­lea or­nata is usu­ally green in color, with black cross-hatching and yel­low or gold col­ored ac­cents. The body, though slen­der, is far less so than in other tree snakes. It has a flat­tened head with con­stricted neck, a blunt nose and large eyes with round pupils.

This snake ranges from 11.5 to 130 cm (0.38 to 4.27 ft) long. Ma­tu­rity is reached at about 1 m (3.3 ft) in length. The tail is about one-fourth of the to­tal length.

Chrysope­lea or­nata is di­ur­nal and ar­bo­real. The snake’s glid­ing abil­ity, while not as im­pres­sive as that of the par­adise fly­ing snake (C. par­a­disi), still makes it ca­pa­ble of mov­ing from tree to tree with rel­a­tive ease. Th­ese snakes are ex­cel­lent climbers, be­ing able move across even the small­est of branches and even straight up trees with few branches by us­ing the edges of rough bark. They are fre­quently seen mov­ing up a co­conut palm, or up ver­ti­cal rock faces in grace­ful curves, grip­ping the some­what un­even sur­faces with their im­pres­sive scales.

They tend to be ner­vous, fast-mov­ing snakes, and will at­tempt to flee if dis­turbed, but will not gen­er­ally hes­i­tate to bite if han­dled. They are mildly ven­omous, but the venom is not con­sid­ered to be dan­ger­ous to hu­mans. It is in­tended to as­sist in sub­du­ing fast mov­ing, ar­bo­real prey. C. or­nata takes small ar­bo­real prey, such as lizards, bats and small ro­dents.

Chrysope­lea or­nata, like oth­ers of its genus, glides or para­chutes. This is pre­sum­ably done to cover dis­tances faster, to es­cape preda­tors, to catch prey, or to move around in forests. Fly­ing snakes usu­ally para­chute from tree to tree, but some­times launch them­selves from trees onto the ground. They have been known to cross as much as 100m.

The false ghar­ial also known as the Malayan ghar­ial and Sunda ghar­ial is a fresh­wa­ter crocodil­ian with a very thin and elon­gated snout. It is listed as Vul­ner­a­ble by the IUCN, as the pop­u­la­tion is es­ti­mated at less than 2,500 ma­ture in­di­vid­u­als.

The false ghar­ial has one of the slim­mer snouts of any liv­ing crocodil­ian, per­haps com­pa­ra­ble to the slen­der-snouted crocodile and the fresh­wa­ter crocodile in the ex­tent of slen­der­ness, only that of the ghar­ial is no­tice­ably more slim. The false ghar­ial is a large crocodil­ian, mea­sur­ing only slightly smaller than the ghar­ial. Three ma­ture males kept in cap­tiv­ity mea­sured 3.6 to 3.9 m (11 ft 10 in to 12 ft 10 in) and weighed 190 to 210 kg (420 to 460 lb), while a fe­male mea­sured 3.27 m (10 ft 9 in) and weighed 93 kg (205 lb).

In some cases, males can re­port­edly grow to as much as 5 m (16 ft) in length. Fe­males have been recorded at lengths of up to 4 m (13 ft 1 in) and

males have been con­firmed at lengths of up to 5 m (16 ft 5 in). The false ghar­ial ap­par­ently has the largest skull of any ex­tant crocodil­ian, un­doubt­edly aided by the great length of the slen­der snout. Out of the eight long­est crocodil­ian skulls from ex­ist­ing species that could be found in mu­se­ums around the world, six of th­ese be­longed to false ghar­i­als.

The long­est crocodil­ian skull was of this species and mea­sured 84 cm (33 in) in length, with a mandibu­lar length of 104 cm (41 in). Most of the own­ers of th­ese enor­mous skulls sur­pris­ingly had no mea­sured (or even an­ce­dot­edly claimed) to­tal mea­sure­ments but based on the known skull-to-to­tal length ra­tio for the species, they would mea­sure ap­prox­i­mately 5.5 to 6.1 m (18 ft 1 in to 20 ft 0 in) in length.

At the end of 2008, a 4-m fe­male false ghar­ial at­tacked and ate a fish­er­man in cen­tral Kal­i­man­tan; his re­mains were found in the ghar­ial’s stom­ach. This was the first ver­i­fied fa­tal hu­man at­tack by a false ghar­ial. How­ever, by 2012, at least two more ver­i­fied fa­tal at­tacks on hu­mans by false ghar­ial had oc­curred in­di­cat­ing per­haps an in­crease of hu­man-false ghar­ial con­flict pos­si­bly cor­re­lated to the de­cline of habi­tat, habi­tat qual­ity and nat­u­ral prey num­bers.

False ghar­i­als are mound-nesters. Fe­males lay small clutches of 13 to 35 eggs per nest, and ap­pear to pro­duce the largest eggs of ex­tant crocodil­ians. Sex­ual ma­tu­rity in fe­males ap­pears to be at­tained around 2.5 to 3 m (8.2 to 9.8 ft), which is large com­pared to other crocodil­ians.

It is not known when they breed in the wild or when the nest­ing sea­son is. Once the eggs are laid, and con­struc­tion of the mound is com­pleted, the fe­male aban­dons her nest. Un­like most other crocodil­ians, the young re­ceive no parental care and are at risk of be­ing eaten by preda­tors, such as mon­gooses, tigers, leop­ards, civets, and wild dogs. The young hatch af­ter 90 days and are left to fend for them­selves.

The false ghar­ial is threat­ened with ex­tinc­tion through­out most of its range due to the drainage of its fresh­wa­ter swamp­lands and clear­ance of sur­round­ing rain­forests. The species is also hunted fre­quently for its skin and meat, and the eggs are of­ten har­vested for hu­man con­sump­tion.

Green Sea Tur­tle

Burmese Python climb­ing a tree

Si­amese Croc­o­diles

Green Sea Turle

The Golden Fly­ing Snake

Newly hatched Green Sea Tur­tle

False Ghar­ial close-up

Golden Fly­ing Snake in flight

False Ghar­ial

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