A fresh look into ‘Book of Negroes’
Black history is shown through N.S. online portal
The image on the computer screen looks innocent enough: A ledger showing a list of names, ages and descriptions of physical stature - all of it written in a precise script that hasn’t been practised in more than two centuries.
But a closer examination of the “Book of Negroes” online reveals a time when black people were - legally speaking - nothing more than property.
The book was compiled in New York between April and November of 1783 at the conclusion of the American Revolutionary War. It is a record of the 3,000 black refugees - all of whom sided with the British during the war - who were loaded on ships bound for Nova Scotia, then a British colony.
In column after column, the list of human souls reads like a commercial inventory: “Aaron Jon, 42, stout fellow.” “Isaac Jon, 10, fine boy.” “Sarah Gordon, 28, tall, limber wench.”
And with each black loyalist’s name, their status as a current or former slave is also cited with cold detachment:
“Property of Thomas Prichard, (and) a refugee from Philadelphia.”
“Formerly slave to Sam Dyer, Rhode Island. Left him ... four years ago.”
“(Belonged) to P.G. Brook Livingston, who gave her freedom.”
The register, now kept at the National Archives in London, is described as the single most important document relating to the immigration of African Americans to Nova Scotia.
“It gives the descendants their identity if their ancestors came on that migration route,” said Lois Yorke, director of the Nova Scotia Archives. “It gives them back who they are.”
The book’s contents, including high-resolution images of each page, have been available online as a searchable database for several years, but the Nova Scotia government recently added most of the data to its open data portal. That means the lists can be downloaded for research or used by developers to create new applications.
Aside from names and ages, all 3,008 records include the name of the vessel boarded, its commander and the ship’s eventual destination.
Sylvia Hamilton, a filmmaker and professor at the University of King’s College in Halifax, says the “Book of Negroes” - an inspiration for the 2007 Lawrence Hill novel of the same name - provides a tangible record of immigrants whose past might otherwise be forgotten.
“Those names have been read into the record,” Hamilton said in an interview. “They are people who cannot be erased ... They were individuals. They were people with agency. They escaped by the thousands - men, women, children. It’s a remarkable historical document.”
The book also documents the cases of a small number of fugitive slaves like “Betty,” who were claimed by their American owners before they could leave New York. The book says the British gave the woman to a Thomas Smith “to be disposed of by him at his pleasure.”
One slave owner who appeared in New York to reclaim his property was none other than George Washington, commander in chief of the Continental Army and the first president of the United States. In her book, “Black Loyalists,” Halifax author Ruth Holmes Whitehead says Washington failed in his bid to retrieve three slaves, who fled to Nova Scotia under the direction of British commander-in-chief Sir Guy Carleton.
However, the “Book of Negroes” also makes it clear that some on the list were still legally considered slaves when they arrived in Nova Scotia with their white, loyalist owners.
Sylvia Hamilton, filmmaker, writer and educator, is seen at the University of King’s College in Halifax on Thursday. At first, the image on the computer screen looks innocent enough: a ledger showing a list of names, ages and brief descriptions of physical stature, all of it written in a precise cursive that hasn’t been practised in more than two centuries. But a closer examination of the “Book of Negroes” reveals a time when black people were nothing more than property. Sylvia Hamilton, a filmmaker and professor at the University of King’s College in Halifax, says the book provides a tangible record of immigrants whose dark past might otherwise be forgotten.