TODAY IN HISTORY
In 1521, Pope Leo X gave Henry VIII of England the title “Fidei Defensor,” or Defender of the Faith. Thirteen years later, Henry severed all ties with Rome to establish the Church of England.
In 1776, the first naval battle of Lake Champlain was fought during the American Revolution. American forces under Brig.-Gen. Benedict Arnold suffered heavy losses but managed to stall British forces led by Guy Carleton.
In 1797, British forces defeated the Dutch at the battle of Camperdown.
In 1809, just over three years after the famous Lewis and Clark expedition ended, Meriwether Lewis was found dead in a Tennessee inn, an apparent suicide. He was 35.
In 1811, inventor John Stevens put into operation the first steam ferry line in the world, running between New York City and Hoboken, N.J.
In 1868, American inventor Thomas Edison patented an electric voting machine. In 1881, David Henderson Houston patented the first roll film for cameras. In 1899, the Boer War began. In 1900, Winston Churchill was first elected to the British House of Commons. In 1911, the Ontario Hydro-Electric Power Commission’s transmission system was incorporated at Berlin, now Kitchener.
In 1914, Paris’ Notre Dame Cathedral, one of the most noted Gothic cathedrals in Europe, was damaged during a First World War air raid.