St. Thomas Times-Journal - - SPORTS -

In 1521, Pope Leo X gave Henry VIII of Eng­land the ti­tle “Fidei De­fen­sor,” or De­fender of the Faith. Thirteen years later, Henry sev­ered all ties with Rome to es­tab­lish the Church of Eng­land.

In 1776, the first naval bat­tle of Lake Cham­plain was fought dur­ing the Amer­i­can Revo­lu­tion. Amer­i­can forces un­der Brig.-Gen. Bene­dict Arnold suf­fered heavy losses but man­aged to stall Bri­tish forces led by Guy Car­leton.

In 1797, Bri­tish forces de­feated the Dutch at the bat­tle of Cam­per­down.

In 1809, just over three years after the fa­mous Lewis and Clark ex­pe­di­tion ended, Meri­wether Lewis was found dead in a Ten­nessee inn, an ap­par­ent sui­cide. He was 35.

In 1811, in­ven­tor John Stevens put into op­er­a­tion the first steam ferry line in the world, run­ning be­tween New York City and Hobo­ken, N.J.

In 1868, Amer­i­can in­ven­tor Thomas Edi­son patented an elec­tric vot­ing ma­chine. In 1881, David Hen­der­son Hous­ton patented the first roll film for cam­eras. In 1899, the Boer War be­gan. In 1900, Win­ston Churchill was first elected to the Bri­tish House of Com­mons. In 1911, the On­tario Hy­dro-Elec­tric Power Com­mis­sion’s trans­mis­sion sys­tem was in­cor­po­rated at Berlin, now Kitch­ener.

In 1914, Paris’ Notre Dame Cathe­dral, one of the most noted Gothic cathe­drals in Europe, was dam­aged dur­ing a First World War air raid.

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