Eleven wolf/coyote hybrids confirmed in Newfoundland since 2013
‘It’s a dog’s breakfast,’ scientist says
Wolves and coyotes have been mating on the island of Newfoundland, DNA testing keeps showing, and the province’s director of wildlife is monitoring the situation with great interest.
The one that was most recently in the news — a hybrid trapped in the fall near Lewis Lake by Botwood resident Kevin Strowbridge — was one of 11 that have been confirmed here since 2013, John Blake told TC Media.
The 11 were harvested over a large portion of the island, from the Baie Verte Peninsula to the Bonavista Peninsula, and a bit inland. Only one — which was caught at Gaff Topsails in 2016 — had crossed over the highway.
“These 11 are certainly pointing to hybridization with grey wolves, which we know we’ve had at least four here on the island since 2008,” said Blake. “It’s just adding to the genetic mix that’s already very hybrid. The Eastern Coyote came here in the 1980s. That already had Algonquin wolf as part of its genetic makeup, but very, very small percentages of it would have been wolf.
“What these 11 are showing us is that yes, there has been introgression of the more pure grey wolf — the Labrador grey wolf — into our Eastern coyote genetic mix here on the island.” A dog’s breakfast
He said he has seen some of the hybrids up close and others in pictures, and while they all fall into the 60-pound range, they don’t all look the same.
“As with hybridization, it doesn’t come out as one feature. So you can have one animal that will take on more of a facial appearance of a wolf than a coyote, and another animal could take on a different morphology characteristic. Maybe it’ll have larger paws than an Eastern coyote would, but smaller than a wolf.”
He said other features, such as coloration, can come out in different ways.
“The thing to remember, too, is there’s actually domestic dog in the genetic makeup of the animals that we’re talking about, so at some point — whether it was through the Eastern Coyotes that emigrated to Newfoundland, or more recently in breeding with dogs — there is domestic dog genetic material in some of these animals. It’s a really dog’s breakfast — pardon the pun. A genetic soup.”
While this may be news in Newfoundland, it’s by no means abnormal. Blake said the same scenario is playing out in Quebec and Ontario, with hybridization of several species occurring.
“As climate changes, as habitat changes, as we manipulate and change landscapes, these things are going to happen. Species that were once separated — maybe geographically, maybe from a reproductive capacity perspective — if they become a little bit more aligned through whatever reason, whether it’s climate change or habitat change or what have you, well, there’s a chance at hybridization that occurs, and that’s certainly what we saw with Eastern coyotes and wolves in North America,” he said.
“This is not unique to Newfoundland, by no means. It’s new, and therefore interesting, and how it plays out is going to be interesting and it may in fact have an impact on how we manage wildlife in the future.”
The Department of Environment and Wildlife is asking hunters and trappers who come across large coyotes — those weighing more than the average 16 or 17 kg — to get in touch so testing can be done on the carcass.
“It is our desire to continue to monitor the existence of any hybrids and/or any wolf — pure wolf — that might be present in order to get an idea of the scale and range expansion, if any, of these animals,” said Blake.
In the meantime, he’s interested to see what ecological implications the hybrids could bring to the island.
“This is a new predator — if, in fact, it becomes established — and there’s a fairly logical assumption that could be made that hybrids will be larger than the Eastern coyote, but smaller than the wolf. How that morphology, how their behaviour, how their diet is all going to impact on our ecology is right now unknown.
A Labrador wolf (grey wolf) is larger than an Eastern Coyote. There have been four confirmed grey wolves caught on the island of Newfoundland since 2008.
Kevin Strowbridge snared this coyote/wolf hybrid near Lewis Lake in November. It is one of 11 such hybrids that have been confirmed on the island since 2013.