TODAY IN HISTORY
In 1521, Pope Leo X gave Henry VIII of England the title “Fidei Defensor,” or Defender of the Faith. Thirteen years later, Henry severed all ties with Rome to establish the Church of England.
In 1776, the first naval battle of Lake Champlain was fought during the American Revolution. American forces under Brig.-Gen. Benedict Arnold suffered heavy losses but managed to stall British forces led by Guy Carleton.
In 1797, British forces defeated the Dutch at the battle of Camperdown.
In 1809, just over three years after the famous Lewis and Clark expedition ended, Meriwether Lewis was found dead in a Tennessee inn, an apparent suicide. He was 35. In 1811, inventor John Stevens put into operation the first steam ferry line in the world, running between New York City and Hoboken, N.J.
In 1868, American inventor Thomas Edison patented an electric voting machine.
In 1869, the Red River Rebellion began when a group led by Adam Clark Webb attempted to survey a field belonging to Andre Nault, a Metis, at St. Vital, Man. About 20 Metis led by Louis Riel prevented the work and forced Webb to leave, an act which sparked confrontations between Riel and the Canadian government.
In 1881, David Henderson Houston patented the first roll film for cameras.
In 1899, the Boer War began. In 1911, the Ontario Hydro-Electric Power Commission’s transmission system was incorporated at Berlin, now Kitchener.
In 1914, Paris’ Notre Dame Cathedral, one of the most noted Gothic cathedrals in Europe, was damaged during a First World War air raid.
In 1917, an order-in-council prohibited strikes and lockouts in Canada during the First World War.
In 1942, the RCMP ship “St. Roch,” under the command of Sgt. Henry Larson, arrived in Halifax after completing the first west-to-east crossing of the Northwest Passage. The “St. Roch,” a 31-metre motor schooner, began its voyage in Vancouver in 1940. One member of the eight-man crew died of a heart attack while the ship wintered in the ice less than 80 kilometres from the magnetic pole.