TODAY IN HISTORY
In 1314, 39 Knights Templar were burned at the stake in Paris. Created to protect pilgrims going to the Holy Land, the military order had grown wealthy after the Crusades. Perhaps because of jealousy, they were accused of sodomy, blasphemy, and heresy. Many scholars now consider them to have been innocent.
In 1584, Ivan IV, the first czar of Russia, also known as Ivan the Terrible, died.
In 1718, the first inoculation against disease took place in England, when Mary Wortley Montagu inoculated her son against smallpox. The injection was successful.
In 1836, the Hudson’s Bay Co. steamer “Beaver,” the first on the Pacific coast, arrived at Fort Vancouver.
In 1837, Grover Cleveland, twice president of the United States, was born. Cleveland, a Democrat, first served from 1885-89. He lost the next election to Benjamin Harrison, even though he captured more of the popular vote. He returned as president in 1893, retiring in 1897.
In 1858, engine inventor Rudolph Diesel was born in Germany.
In 1869, Arthur Neville Chamberlain, British prime minister from 1937-40, was born in Birmingham.