In 30 B.C., Cleopatra, the celebrated queen of Egypt, committed suicide.
In 1780, American revolutionary general Benedict Arnold made a secret pact with the British to surrender the American fort at West Point, N.Y. The plot failed, but Arnold escaped to fight for the British.
In 1797, Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, wife of the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley and the author of “Frankenstein,” was born. She died in 1851.
In 1813, more than 500 settlers were killed by Natives in the Massacre of Fort Mims, near Mobile, Ala.
In 1851, the legislative council of British Columbia held its first session.
In 1860, the first British tramway was inaugurated at Birkenhead.
In 1862, Union forces were defeated by the Confederates at the second battle of Bull Run during the U.S. Civil War.
In 1905, Ty Cobb made his major-league debut as a player for the Detroit Tigers, hitting a double in his first at-bat in a game against the New York Highlanders. (The Tigers won 5-3.)