The Roles of Peace­keep­ers

Beijing (English) - - CONTENTS -

Through its ac­tions, the Chi­nese Peo­ple's Lib­er­a­tion Army (PLA) demon­strates its coun­try's com­mit­ment to “lov­ing peace and tak­ing on re­spon­si­bil­i­ties.” It ig­nites the torch of peace in war-rav­aged re­gions and sows hope in poverty-stricken ar­eas.

A peace­keeper once wrote be­fore de­part­ing for a peace­keep­ing mis­sion: “As long as I can make a con­tri­bu­tion to the peace of the world, I will not hes­i­tate to sac­ri­fice my life.” With such lofty be­liefs, Chi­nese peace­keep­ers risk their lives and de­vote them­selves to peace­keep­ing op­er­a­tions.

In April 1990, news about Chi­nese sol­diers ap­peared for the first time in the bul­letin of the Com­mand Depart­ment of the United Na­tions Truce Su­per­vi­sion Or­ga­ni­za­tion (UNTSO). It said that five mil­i­tary ob­servers from the PLA had ar­rived in Da­m­as­cus. This piece of news, with ac­com­pa­ny­ing pho­tos, marked the be­gin­ning of the PLA'S par­tic­i­pa­tion in the UN'S peace­keep­ing op­er­a­tions.

The com­pe­tence and ded­i­ca­tion of Chi­nese mil­i­tary ob­servers on these three peace­keep­ing mis­sions paved the way for China's par­tic­i­pa­tion in more op­er­a­tions.

Dur­ing the fol­low­ing 27 years, China's peace­keep­ing forces have grown both in scope and in the type of par­tic­i­pat­ing force, which has has ex­panded from en­gi­neer­ing units alone to mul­ti­ple units in­clud­ing in­fantry, en­gi­neer­ing, trans­porta­tion, med­i­cal, se­cu­rity and army avi­a­tion. The out­stand­ing per­for­mance of Chi­nese sol­diers has been highly ap­plauded by the UN and by lo­cal peo­ple. Chi­nese peace­keep­ers have be­come a core force for peace­keep­ing op­er­a­tions.

Peace­keep­ing Op­er­a­tions

1992 was a sig­nif­i­cant year in the his­tory of the PLA'S par­tic­i­pa­tion in peace­keep­ing op­er­a­tions. In April of that year, at the re­quest of the UN, China dis­patched its first en­gi­neer­ing bri­gade to join the United Na­tions Tran­si­tional Au­thor­ity in Cam­bo­dia (UNTAC). The 400 sol­diers and of­fi­cers in­volved in this mis­sion mainly worked on lo­cal road and air­port con­struc­tion projects. From then on, China has dis­patched not only mil­i­tary ob­servers, but other types of forces as well.

In 2002, China for­mally be­came a mem­ber of the UN'S Peace­keep­ing Ca­pa­bil­ity Readi­ness Sys­tem, which meant that the per­son­nel and equip­ment to be dis­patched had to be ready within 90 days. With this mech­a­nism, the PLA grad­u­ally ex­panded the scale and types of troops in­volved in peace­keep­ing op­er­a­tions.

In April 2003, China dis­patched an en­gi­neer­ing unit con­sist­ing of 175 sol­diers and of­fi­cers and a med­i­cal team with 43 mem­bers to the United Na­tions Or­ga­ni­za­tion Sta­bi­liza­tion Mis­sion in the Demo­cratic Repub­lic of the Congo (MONUSCO). In De­cem­ber of the same year, China dis­patched a 275-mem­ber en­gi­neer­ing unit, a 240-mem­ber trans­port unit, and a 43-mem­ber med­i­cal unit to the United Na­tions Mis­sion in Liberia, ex­pand­ing its forces to in­clude trans­porta­tion units.

In Novem­ber 2007, a multi- pur­pose en­gi­neer­ing unit con­sist­ing of 315 mem­bers from China was dis­patched to the African Union/ United Na­tions Hy­brid Op­er­a­tion in Dar­fur, Sudan, in­clud­ing a unit for drilling wells.

From the end of June to early July 2009, the PLA held a joint peace­keep­ing train­ing pro­gram with the Mon­go­lian Army called “Peace­keep­ing Mis­sion 2009,” which was the first joint peace­keep­ing ex­er­cise that China or­gan­ised and

con­ducted with a for­eign na­tion.

In Jan­uary 2011, China dis­patched a 155-mem­ber en­gi­neer­ing unit, a 170-mem­ber se­cu­rity unit, and a 70-mem­ber med­i­cal unit to the United Na­tions Mul­ti­di­men­sional In­te­grated Sta­bi­liza­tion Mis­sion in Mali. This was the first time that the PLA sent a se­cu­rity unit to join a peace­keep­ing op­er­a­tion.

In 2015, China dis­patched an in­fantry bat­tal­ion to join the United Na­tions Mis­sion in South Sudan. The bat­tal­ion in­cluded 13 women sol­diers who con­sti­tuted China's first fe­male squad to join peace­keep­ing op­er­a­tions. These women were from Chongqing Mu­nic­i­pal­ity and the nine prov­inces of Shan­dong, Jiangsu, He­nan, Shaanxi, Zhe­jiang, Hu­nan, He­bei, Guangxi and Sichuan. They took charge of health care, telecom­mu­ni­ca­tions, and pub­lic­ity. As soon as they heard about this all-fe­male squadron, the women were quick to sign up to be mem­bers and had to pass a num­ber of dif­fi­cult tests.

Their train­ing in­cluded us­ing the lat­est bul­let­proof vests, hel­mets, and el­bow and knee pads, as well as au­to­matic ri­fles. These brave women got top marks and had to ful­fill ex­actly the same re­quire­ments as the men to qual­ify for peace­keep­ing mis­sions. In ad­di­tion to peace­keep­ing du­ties, they were also re­spon­si­ble for pro­tect­ing and com­mu­ni­cat­ing with lo­cal women and chil­dren.

China's peace­keep­ing forces are highly dis­ci­plined and have com­pleted many mis­sions, set­ting an ex­am­ple for peace­keep­ing forces from other coun­tries. In ar­eas where bul­lets fly, epi­demics sweep through, or sup­plies are se­verely lack­ing, they serve un­fail­ingly. A UN of­fi­cer spoke highly of Chi­nese peace­keep­ers at a cer­e­mony to is­sue medals of hon­our to Chi­nese peace­keep­ers: “You as­sume great re­spon­si­bil­i­ties. You are the best of the best. We are proud to pos­sess such great forces.” Chi­nese peace­keep­ing forces have re­ceived nu­mer­ous hon­ours. With their ac­tions, they have proven that the PLA are guardians of peace and they spread friend­ship and ci­vil­ity.

Liveli­hood Projects Con­struc­tion

Chi­nese peace­keep­ers not only stop con­flicts and main­tain or­der, but also im­prove the liveli­hood of lo­cal peo­ple. In Jan­uary 2017, China's 15th group of peace­keep­ing forces to South Sudan com­pleted re­pairs on a 125 kilo­me­tre-long sec­tion of road from Rum­bek to Mvolo. It was the first road re­pair task un­der­taken by China's en­gi­neer­ing unit in Rum­bek, and it was the unit's first project that spanned dif­fer­ent war zones since they ar­rived at the mis­sion area.

An­other sec­tion of road re­pair from Rum­bek to Juba was un­der­taken by peace­keep­ing forces from Bangladesh; the two sec­tions were a to­tal of 400 kilo­me­tres long. These roads were the main pas­sages for the UN to con­duct hu­man­i­tar­ian res­cue in South Sudan and were known as a “life­line for ma­te­rial trans­port” and an “artery for com­mu­ni­ca­tions be­tween south and north.” Chi­nese sol­diers' ac­tive un­der­tak­ing of the task en­hanced the im­age of Chi­nese peace­keep­ers in the in­ter­na­tional com­mu­nity.

The area where China's en­gi­neer­ing unit was lo­cated was in South Sudan's western war zone, but a 30-kilo­me­tre-long sec­tion of the road from Rum­bek to Mvolo was in the south­ern war zone. This was the first time that Chi­nese troops had car­ried out such ur­gent and dan­ger­ous road re­pairs, pro­vid­ing them with valu­able ex­pe­ri­ence for con­duct­ing sim­i­lar projects in the fu­ture. Open­ing up this road­way fa­cil­i­tated the UN'S work in this re­gion by al­low­ing trucks to de­liver sup­plies, re­duc­ing pres­sure on air traf­fic and low­er­ing trans­porta­tion costs. Jia Li­hui, the deputy bat­tal­ion chief of China's peace­keep­ing forces, said, “The en­gi­neer­ing unit was pressed to com­plete such a large project in a short time, which was chal­leng­ing. It was the unit's largest project here and the risk of dan­ger was quite high, with many ob­sta­cles to over­come. Af­ter the re­pairs were com­pleted, lo­cals showed their grat­i­tude and said they were very moved by the hard work, qual­ity and speed of the Chi­nese unit.”

For many years, en­gi­neer­ing, med­i­cal and trans­port teams con­sti­tuted the ma­jor­ity of China's peace­keep­ing forces, demon­strat­ing the ideal of China's peace­ful de­vel­op­ment.

Im­prov­ing Peace­keep­ing Mech­a­nism

The rea­son Chi­nese peace­keep­ers have re­ceived in­ter­na­tional recog­ni­tion is be­cause of its im­proved peace­keep­ing mech­a­nisms. In De­cem­ber 2001, the Peace­keep­ing Of­fice of the Min­istry of Na­tional De­fense of the PRC was founded, an in­sti­tu­tion re­spon­si­ble for the co­or­di­na­tion and man­age­ment of the PLA'S par­tic­i­pa­tion in peace­keep­ing op­er­a­tions. Since then, the PLA has drawn up rel­e­vant rules and reg­u­la­tions con­cern­ing peace­keep­ing per­son­nel, which serve as a ba­sis to strengthen man­age­ment, im­prove treat­ment, and en­sure their rights and in­ter­ests.

Reg­u­la­tions have also been for­mu­lated for train­ing peace­keep­ing per­son­nel be­fore they depart on mis­sions.

In June 2009, the Peace­keep­ing Cen­tre of China's Min­istry of Na­tional De­fense was founded in Huairou Dis­trict, Bei­jing. It serves as a train­ing venue for Chi­nese and for­eign peace­keep­ing per­son­nel and as a plat­form for in­ter­na­tional ex­changes. It sym­bol­ises that China's peace­keep­ing train­ing and ex­changes are con­nected with the world. Since then, peace­keep­ing ex­changes have been an im­por­tant part of China's mil­i­tary diplo­macy and have been fre­quently re­ported.

From the end of March to early April 2011, a joint train­ing course was held at the cen­tre or­gan­ised by the UN'S Depart­ment of Peace­keep­ing Op­er­a­tions and China's Min­istry of Na­tional De­fense. This was the first such course, af­ter which train­ing cour­ses for se­nior com­man­ders and mil­i­tary ob­servers were fre­quently held at the cen­tre. It was des­ig­nated as a core peace­keep­ing train­ing base by the UN.

Based upon years of prac­ti­cal ex­pe­ri­ence, in 2012 Reg­u­la­tions on the Chi­nese Peo­ple’s Lib­er­a­tion Army’s Par­tic­i­pa­tion in UN Peace­keep­ing Op­er­a­tions (trial) was is­sued, which clar­i­fies the mis­sions, or­gan­i­sa­tion, dis­patch, with­drawal, ed­u­ca­tion, train­ing, and man­age­ment of the PLA'S peace­keep­ing forces, and pro­vides le­gal stan­dards for their work.

In Oc­to­ber 2014, the Peace­keep­ing Of­fice of the Min­istry of Na­tional De­fense of the PRC, the China In­sti­tute for In­ter­na­tional Strate­gic Stud­ies, and the Folke Ber­nadotte Academy in Swe­den hosted an an­nual in­ter­na­tional peace­keep­ing con­fer­ence in Bei­jing en­ti­tled the “Peace Ac­tion Chal­lenge Fo­rum.” Chi­nese of­fi­cers have also par­tic­i­pated in in­ter­na­tional peace­keep­ing sem­i­nars and train­ings held all around the world, and ex­pe­ri­enced mil­i­tary of­fi­cers have given lec­tures at train­ings or­gan­ised by the UN to share and dis­cuss ideas with peo­ple from other coun­tries. A num­ber of mil­i­tary of­fi­cers as­signed by China to UN peace­keep­ing mis­sion ar­eas have as­sumed im­por­tant posts. These of­fi­cers en­rich

China's par­tic­i­pa­tion in peace­keep­ing op­er­a­tions and pro­mote the de­vel­op­ment of the UN'S peace­keep­ing work.

Peace­keep­ing Mar­tyrs

The PLA sol­diers come for peace, but main­tain­ing peace is dif­fi­cult and in­volves sac­ri­fice.since its par­tic­i­pa­tion in United Na­tions peace­keep­ing op­er­a­tions in 1990, the Chi­nese govern­ment has dis­patched more than 30,000 sol­diers on 24 peace­keep­ing op­er­a­tions. Of these sol­diers, 19 peace­keep­ers sac­ri­ficed their lives. They were: Lei Run­min, Liu Ming­fang, Chen Zhiguo, Yu Shili, Yu Jianx­ing, Fu Qingli, Zhang Ming, Du Zhaoyu, Zhu Xiaop­ing, Li Qin, Guo Baoshan, Wang Shulin, Zhong Jian­qin, He Zhi­hong (fe­male), Li Xiaom­ing, Zhao Huayu.

In re­sponse to ter­ror­ist at­tacks, the Min­istry of Na­tional De­fense of the PRC stated that China will con­tinue to firmly sup­port UN peace­keep­ing op­er­a­tions, fight against ter­ror­ism in all its forms, and de­fend world peace. This de­ter­mi­na­tion from the govern­ment serves as a great sup­port for the Un-led peace­keep­ing op­er­a­tions and re­as­sures peo­ple and coun­tries who need help from peace­keep­ing forces. The PLA'S ac­tions in the world are con­crete ex­am­ples of their slo­gan to “faith­fully carry out mis­sions and safe­guard world peace.”

Noth­ing can stop hu­man be­ings' pur­suit of peace. Par­tic­i­pat­ing in peace­keep­ing op­er­a­tions and con­tribut­ing to world peace is the re­spon­si­bil­ity of a great coun­try. China has al­ways been a peace- lov­ing coun­try, and mod­ern wartimes have par­tic­u­larly strength­ened the PLA'S de­ter­mi­na­tion to main­tain world peace. Chi­nese sol­diers have ful­filled their solemn com­mit­ment to pro­mote and main­tain world peace.

On May 24, 2017, sev­eral days be­fore the In­ter­na­tional Day of UN Peace­keep­ers (May 29), the UN Head­quar­ters held a solemn cer­e­mony to is­sue a post­hu­mous award known as the “Dag Ham­marskjöld Medal” to peace­keep­ers who lost their lives dur­ing op­er­a­tions in the pre­vi­ous year, and is­sued an “In Ser­vice of Peace Com­mem­o­ra­tive Medal” to peace­keep­ers who per­formed well in mis­sions. Liu Jieyi, am­bas­sador of the Per­ma­nent Mis­sion of the Peo­ple's Repub­lic of China to UN, and Huang Xueping, head of the Mil­i­tary Staff Com­mit­tee of the Per­ma­nent Mis­sion of the PRC to UN, re­ceived the medals on be­half of Chi­nese mar­tyrs Shen Lian­gliang, Li Lei and Yang Shu­peng.

Chi­nese peace­keep­ers prac­tice the tra­di­tional Dur­ing peace­keep­ing op­er­a­tions, Chi­nese peace­keep­ers

fur­ther strength­ened the PLA'S im­age as a “mighty and civilised force” and both the speed and qual­ity of their work have set an ex­am­ple and be­come the stan­dard for peace­keep­ing forces from other coun­tries. The Stock­holm In­ter­na­tional Peace Re­search In­sti­tute is­sued a re­port in Novem­ber 2009 that stated, “China's peace­keep­ing forces are the most pro­fes­sional, ef­fi­cient, well-trained and dis­ci­plined of all the UN'S troops” and “their good im­age im­proves the ef­fi­ciency and strength­ens the le­git­i­macy of the Un-led peace­keep­ing op­er­a­tions.” Ban Ki­moon, for­mer sec­re­tary gen­eral of the UN, said, “I am very proud of the work that Chi­nese peace­keep­ers have done. They make our world peace­ful, safe, and free.”

Since the PLA joined the first peace­keep­ing op­er­a­tion in 1990, they have be­come a core force in main­tain­ing in­ter­na­tional peace. Look­ing into the fu­ture, the UN and other in­ter­na­tional or­gan­i­sa­tions must still play their role in main­tain­ing world peace and se­cu­rity in war-stricken re­gions. The PLA will ex­pand the scope and scale of its peace­keep­ing op­er­a­tions and will con­tinue to play a pos­i­tive role in main­tain­ing world peace and sta­bil­ity.

Hu­man­i­tar­ian As­sis­tance

In an era of peace, de­vel­op­ment, and co­op­er­a­tion, peace­ful mil­i­tary op­er­a­tions have be­come an im­por­tant mil­i­tary way and the PLA has turned to fight­ing against ter­ror­ism, pro­vid­ing emer­gency re­lief, and in in­ter­na­tional peace­keep­ing. It has played an im­por­tant role in dis­as­ter re­lief at home and in in­ter­na­tional hu­man­i­tar­ian as­sis­tance, with some re­mark­able re­sults. To make its as­sis­tance more ef­fec­tive, the Chi­nese govern­ment and its mil­i­tary de­part­ments have set up an in­ter-min­is­te­rial work method for emer­gency ma­te­rial as­sis­tance for for­eign coun­tries.

In a re­lated area, one thing peo­ple may not be aware of is the amount of un­ex­ploded ord­nance still ly­ing on the earth in ar­eas where hu­mans live: about 100 mil­lion mines. To try to min­imise the dam­age caused by these deadly de­vices and to help clear them out can be seen in some in­ter­na­tional con­ven­tions, but this was also the re­spon­si­bil­ity of Chi­nese sol­diers. The Chi­nese PLA has lived up to its obli­ga­tions in the Con­ven­tion on Cer­tain Con­ven­tional Weapons and Land­mine Pro­to­col by tak­ing part in mine clear­ance ac­tiv­i­ties. It has as­signed dozens of spe­cial­ists and en­gi­neer units to war-torn re­gions to take charge of mine re­moval.

This mine clear­ance and get­ting rid of un­ex­ploded ord­nance can be a dance with death, and the mere act of step­ping onto the mine­field could be con­sid­ered sui­cide. This is what the Chi­nese troops who were sent to Le­banon to re­move mines planted on moun­tain slopes and nar­row paths faced, and un­der ex­treme weather con­di­tion. It was an ar­du­ous task and a very dan­ger­ous one. In Le­banon, the for­eign army en­gi­neers and dem­i­ning com­pa­nies suf­fered ca­su­al­ties. Nonethe­less, the Chi­nese man­aged to cover 1.5 mil­lion square me­tres and iden­ti­fied more than 7,000 un­ex­ploded bombs, with zero

ca­su­al­ties, set­ting a record for their work.

On March 25, 2002, in re­sponse to a UN res­o­lu­tion, China dis­patched two air force air­crafts to trans­port ur­gent­lyneeded medicines and med­i­cal equip­ment to Afghanistan. This was ac­tu­ally the be­gin­ning of the PLA'S in­ter­na­tional hu­man­i­tar­ian aid mis­sions and, now, 15 years later, it has sent out med­i­cal corps per­son­nel, epi­demic spe­cial­ists, and he­li­copter troops to help with in­ter­na­tional dis­as­ter re­lief. This has shown China's hu­man­i­tar­ian spirit and has won its ac­claim from the in­ter­na­tional com­mu­nity.

By 2010, the PLA had han­dled 23 in­ter­na­tional aid mis­sions, pro­vid­ing sup­plies worth of US$80 mil­lion, in­clud­ing tents, blan­kets, medicines, med­i­cal equip­ment, and gen­er­a­tors, to 19 dis­as­ter­stricken coun­tries. It also pro­vided mil­i­tary air­craft and spe­cial trains to trans­port re­lief sup­plies to the re­gions.

The PLA also dis­patched forces to take part in large emer­gency res­cue ef­forts. In 2001, it sent a team of sol­diers and of­fi­cers from the Corp of En­gi­neers of the 38th Group, Army of Bei­jing Mil­i­tary Re­gion, med­i­cal per­son­nel from the Gen­eral Hospi­tal of the Chi­nese Peo­ple's Armed Po­lice Forces, and spe­cial­ists from the China Earth­quake Ad­min­is­tra­tion. The team was known as the China In­ter­na­tional Search & Res­cue Team dur­ing its as­sis­tance ef­forts on be­half of the govern­ment. Since 2001, the team has gone to dis­as­ter-stricken coun­tries six times and re­ceived “in­ter­na­tional heavy res­cue team” cer­ti­fi­ca­tion in 2009, mak­ing it the world's 12th team of this kind and Asia's sec­ond. The PLA also sent a med­i­cal team to Haiti to carry out emer­gency am­bu­lance re­sponse, epi­demic pre­ven­tion, hy­giene, and dis­ease con­trol work in Jan­uary 2010. The team did di­ag­noses on 4,000 peo­ple, and handed out 150 types of drugs and was praised by the lo­cal peo­ple and the United Na­tions Sta­bi­liza­tion Mis­sion in Haiti.

The China In­ter­na­tional Search & Res­cue Team has in­creased its abil­i­ties, with all mem­bers re­ceiv­ing stan­dard­ised in­ter­na­tional res­cue train­ing, and the team leader re­ceiv­ing pro­fes­sional dis­as­ter re­lief train­ing over­seas. They have also built up a pow­er­ful re­sume of prac­ti­cal res­cue ex­pe­ri­ence, hav­ing taken an ac­tive part in 14 op­er­a­tions both in China and abroad. On April 25, 2015, an 8.1-mag­ni­tude earth­quake hit Nepal, fol­lowed by a 7-mag­ni­tude af­ter­shock, re­sulted in se­ri­ous ca­su­al­ties and prop­erty loss. The PLA swung into ac­tion with the re­lief ef­forts in the moun­tain­ous coun­try. This was the largest in­ter­na­tional hu­man­i­tar­ian as­sis­tance op­er­a­tion the PLA had ever con­ducted since the found­ing of the Peo­ple's Repub­lic of China in 1949 and the team ar­rived in Nepal soon af­ter the earth­quake re­ports came in. The mil­i­tary put to­gether re­lief sup­plies and dis­patched air force Il-76 trans­ports to get the sup­plies there. An­other team, com­posed of mem­bers of the Corp of En­gi­neer of the PLA'S 14th Group Army, and a med­i­cal team con­sist­ing of per­son­nel from the Gen­eral Hospi­tal of the Chengdu Mil­i­tary Re­gion and the Chi­nese Cen­ter for Dis­ease Con­trol and Pre­ven­tion—to­tal­ing 170 peo­ple in all— headed for Nepal to carry out the res­cue mis­sion and epi­demic pre­ven­tion ef­forts. There were 222 army troops and armed po­lice from China in all, 10 IL-76 trans­port planes, and 18 he­li­copters join­ing in the dis­as­ter re­lief, up to the morn­ing of April 30. They moved 289 tons of sup­plies, car­ried out search and res­cue work, find­ing two peo­ple, pro­vided med­i­cal treat­ment for 391 peo­ple, and air-lifted 260 ca­su­al­ties and peo­ple trapped un­der the de­bris.

The in­ter­na­tional res­cue teams join­ing the Nepalese ef­fort, the Chi­nese were the first to ar­rive and start car­ry­ing out res­cue work and the first to find some sur­vivors. This demon­strated Chi­nese sol­diers' sin­cer­ity in their peace ef­forts and it was the 10th time for the China In­ter­na­tional Search & Res­cue Team to as­sist over­seas. Pre­vi­ously, it had com­pleted mis­sions in Al­ge­ria, Iran, In­done­sia, Pak­istan, Haiti, New Zealand and Ja­pan.

Chi­nese peace­keep­ers took an oath at a tem­po­rary camp­site in Juba, South Sudan on Oc­to­ber 1, 2015.

The first 135-mem­ber Chi­nese peace­keep­ing force de­part­ing for Mali took an oath at Harbin Taip­ing In­ter­na­tional Air­port on De­cem­ber 3, 2013.

Chi­nese med­i­cal per­son­nel joined the peace­keep­ing mis­sion in the Demo­cratic Repub­lic of Congo in April 2003.

Chi­nese doc­tors ex­am­ined the body of a dis­as­ter vic­tim at a tem­po­rary hospi­tal set up by the Chi­nese In­ter­na­tional Search and Res­cue Team in Thatta City, Pak­istan in Au­gust 2010.

Two Chi­nese doc­tors in­spected a child's leg in Makokou, the cap­i­tal of Ogooué-ivindo, Gabon in June 2009.

Chi­nese en­gi­neer sol­diers de­part­ing for the Demo­cratic Repub­lic of Congo on a peace­keep­ing mis­sion to un­dergo train­ing at a camp­site.

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