Wa­ter from the South, a Life­line of the Cap­i­tal

Beijing (English) - - CONTENTS - Trans­lated by Li Xia Edited by Mark Zuiderveld

The city built more wa­ter plants to utilise wa­ter di­verted from the south which in­creased the cap­i­tal’s wa­ter re­serves and wa­ter in reser­voirs.

Sit­u­ated at the end of the Mid­dle Route of the South-to-north Wa­ter Di­ver­sion Project, Bei­jing sees the com­ple­tion of the project to ben­e­fit peo­ple at the ear­li­est date. On De­cem­ber 30, 2003, the con­struc­tion of the Mid­dle Route (Bei­jing Sec­tion) of the South-to-north Wa­ter Di­ver­sion Project kicked off; in Septem­ber 2008, wa­ter from He­bei Prov­ince ar­rived in Bei­jing, mak­ing the project a new life­line of safe wa­ter sup­ply for the cap­i­tal.

Since the be­gin­ning of 2012, the Of­fice of the Con­struc­tion Com­mit­tee of the South-toNorth Wa­ter Di­ver­sion Project seeks to en­sure the avail­abil­ity of wa­ter, di­vert more wa­ter, and man­age wa­ter prop­erly. It pro­motes the syn­er­getic de­vel­op­ment of Bei­jing, Tian­jin Mu­nic­i­pal­ity, and He­bei Prov­ince, and makes metic­u­lous ef­forts in op­er­at­ing and man­ag­ing wa­ter di­ver­sion.

Con­struct­ing Safe Wa­ter Sup­ply Lay­out

The past five years saw the con­struc­tion of the in­fra­struc­ture for the South-to-north Wa­ter Di­ver­sion Project. By the end of 2016, a wa­ter trans­porta­tion loop route along the West Fourth Ring Road and the East, South, and North Fifth Ring Roads came into be­ing to sup­port the project. Con­struc­tion on branch projects to trans­port wa­ter to East and West Bei­jing and the Miyun Reser­voir Reg­u­la­tion and Re­serve Project were com­pleted. They re­ceive 1.05 bil­lion cu­bic me­tres of wa­ter per year and have be­come chan­nels for trans­port­ing wa­ter to cen­tral dis­tricts and new towns of Tongzhou, Fang­shan, Dax­ing, and Men­tougou dis­tricts.

Large wa­ter plants in cen­tral dis­tricts were mainly dis­trib­uted north and west of the city. To sup­port the project, wa­ter plants were con­structed in Guo­gongzhuang in Feng­tai in the West and Yizhuang in Dax­ing in South Bei­jing and the No. 10 Wa­ter Plant in East Bei­jing. Dis­tribut­ing wa­ter plants in the cen­tral dis­tricts was more ap­pro­pri­ate. Wa­ter plants are also to be built in new towns of subur­ban Bei­jing to en­hance re­gional wa­ter sup­ply ca­pa­bil­ity and im­prove wa­ter qual­ity.

Now, eight wa­ter plants are used to re­ceive wa­ter from the South and wa­ter from the south cov­ered the cen­tral dis­tricts, the Hexi area of Feng­tai, new towns in Dax­ing and Men­tougou dis­tricts, and ar­eas in Chang­ping and Tongzhou dis­tricts.

Di­vert­ing 4.3 Bil­lion Cu­bic Me­tres of Wa­ter to Bei­jing

To en­sure the wa­ter avail­abil­ity of Bei­jing, the Bei­jing-shi­ji­azhuang Emer­gency Wa­ter Sup­ply Project was com­pleted be­fore the Mid­dle Route of the South-to-north Wa­ter Di­ver­sion Project was put into oper­a­tion. Un­til April 2014, a to­tal of 1.606 bil­lion cu­bic me­tres of wa­ter has been di­verted from He­bei Prov­ince.

On De­cem­ber 12, 2014, the first stage of the Mid­dle Route of the project started to sup­ply wa­ter. On De­cem­ber 27, wa­ter from the Dan­jiangkou Reser­voir flowed to Bei­jing af­ter a 1,276- kilo­me­tre-long jour­ney. Two years on, Bei­jing has im­ported 2.76 bil­lion cu­bic me­tres of wa­ter from the south, and a to­tal of 4.3 bil­lion cu­bic me­tres of trans­ferred wa­ter. The wa­ter al­ways ex­ceeds the re­quire­ments

of Type II of En­vi­ron­men­tal Qual­ity Stan­dards for Sur­face Wa­ter, and ben­e­fits over 11 mil­lion peo­ple of Bei­jing. The stan­dard­ized man­age­ment and metic­u­lous di­ver­sion have served as coun­ter­mea­sures to var­i­ous emer­gen­cies, thus en­sur­ing safe oper­a­tion and sta­ble wa­ter di­ver­sion. Among that, in 2005–2016, Bei­jing had re­ceived 1.104 bil­lion cu­bic me­tres of wa­ter, more than the planned amount. De­liv­er­ing re­sults of the project in five years was met ahead of sched­ule.

Es­tab­lish­ing Sci­en­tific Wa­ter Util­ity Prin­ci­ples

Since the end of 2014, when the wa­ter ar­rived in Bei­jing, 200–300 mil­lion cu­bic me­tres of trans­ferred wa­ter from He­bei Prov­ince each year has been re­placed by 1.05 bil­lion cu­bic me­tres from the Dan­jiangkou Reser­voir. With the marked in­crease of di­verted wa­ter, the main wa­ter sup­ply of the city proper has shifted from sur­face and un­der­ground wa­ter to wa­ter from the south, with some wa­ter plants sup­plied with both lo­cal and trans­ferred wa­ter, enhancing wa­ter se­cu­rity in the re­gion.

Bei­jing gave pri­or­ity to wa­ter con­ser­va­tion and wa­ter di­verted from out­side Bei­jing to be used first. It also worked out a sci­en­tific wa­ter util­ity plan. To make bet­ter use of wa­ter from the south and de­liver an im­proved project, a prin­ci­ple of wa­ter use fea­tur­ing “drink­ing, stor­age, and re­plen­ish­ing” was put in place af­ter re­search, which has made a huge dif­fer­ence.

En­sur­ing Wa­ter Qual­ity

To en­sure good wa­ter qual­ity, mea­sures were drafted and im­ple­mented to con­trol pol­lu­tion in the source and ar­eas along the Mid­dle Route of the wa­ter di­ver­sion project. Bei­jing im­ple­mented real-time mon­i­tor­ing in wa­ter trans­ported and es­tab­lished stan­dards to en­sure wa­ter safety. Once wa­ter pol­lu­tion hap­pens, it will be han­dled im­me­di­ately. Another 161 wa­ter qual­ity mon­i­tor­ing sta­tions were es­tab­lished and 500 wa­ter qual­ity mon­i­tor­ing in­stru­ments were in­stalled.

Im­prov­ing Wa­ter Ecol­ogy

The South-to-north Wa­ter Di­ver­sion project has al­ways ad­hered to the de­vel­op­ment ideal of “in­no­va­tion, co­or­di­na­tion, green, open and shar­ing” and in­te­grated the project with ecol­ogy con­struc­tion.

With ad­e­quate wa­ter from the south, 200 self-pro­vided wells were shut down in two years. For two years since De­cem­ber 27, 2014, Bei­jing ex­ploited about 250 mil­lion cu­bic me­tres of un­der­ground wa­ter. Bei­jing also launched a test to sup­ple­ment wa­ter to the Chaobai River. In 2015, the depth of the un­der­ground wa­ter in the plains was close to the end of 2014, which de­clined only 9 cen­time­tres. In Novem­ber 2016, the depth of the un­der­ground wa­ter in the plains re­bounded 52 cen­time­tres than the same pe­riod of the pre­vi­ous year.

In­creas­ing Wa­ter Re­serve

In 2013, Bei­jing Mu­nic­i­pal Gov­ern­ment de­cided to make use of the Bei­jing-miyun chan­nel to build the nine-level lift­ing pump to di­vert the wa­ter from the south to Miyun Reser­voir. It fur­ther ex­panded south­ern wa­ter's cov­er­age scope and in­creased Bei­jing's wa­ter re­serve.

Im­ple­ment­ing Na­tional Strat­egy

The Of­fice has made well-bal­anced plan­ning, shaped a lay­out for the se­cu­rity of wa­ter sup­ply, and ad­justed the tim­ing and or­der of the con­struc­tion of sup­port­ing projects in Bei­jing. It works to en­sure that the core func­tions of the cap­i­tal are fully tapped and lay a solid foun­da­tion for wa­ter re­sources.

The Tongzhou Branch Wa­ter Trans­port Project and Tongzhou Wa­ter Plant were sched­uled to com­plete in 2020, and were the first in­fra­struc­ture projects com­pleted in Tongzhou. Wa­ter trans­porta­tion projects such as Hexi and Dax­ing branches will sup­port wa­ter util­ity in West Bei­jing and the new air­port con­struc­tion. As part of the fol­low-up sup­port­ing project, the se­cond source wa­ter sup­ply loop, ra­dioac­tive branch for ur­ban and ru­ral wa­ter sup­ply, and sup­port­ing wa­ter plants will be planned and built.

Part­ner As­sis­tance

Ac­cord­ing to a na­tional pro­gramme for part­ner as­sis­tance, Bei­jing's 16 dis­tricts have es­tab­lished “one to one” col­lab­o­ra­tive re­la­tion­ships with 16 coun­ties (cities, dis­tricts) in He­nan and Hubei prov­inces. At the be­gin­ning of 2017, Bei­jing is­sued The 13th Five-year Plan for Col­lab­o­ra­tive Re­la­tion­ships of the South-to-north Wa­ter Di­ver­sion Project of Bei­jing. The city sus­tains its ef­forts in en­sur­ing wa­ter qual­ity, im­prov­ing peo­ple's liveli­hood, prompt­ing trans­for­ma­tion, and de­liv­er­ing poverty al­le­vi­a­tion, and strength­ens sup­port work for wa­ter source ar­eas.

Con­fronted with new dy­nam­ics and re­quire­ments in Bei­jing's new de­vel­op­ment stage, the Of­fice has made well-bal­anced plan­ning, and launched a con­struc­tion task of the third stage of the sup­port­ing project of the South-to-north Wa­ter Di­ver­sion Project, thereby fur­ther im­prov­ing the car­ry­ing ca­pac­ity of wa­ter re­sources in the cap­i­tal. Mean­while, the Of­fice has also made fol­lowup plan­ning for the sup­port­ing project be­fore 2030 to build Bei­jing into a live­able city.

In the next five years, the Of­fice will strive to plug wa­ter de­mand-sup­ply gaps, en­sure the se­cu­rity of wa­ter sources, im­prove wa­ter ecol­ogy, en­sure the avail­abil­ity of wa­ter in pri­or­ity ar­eas, and de­liver equal ac­cess to wa­ter for ur­ban and ru­ral ar­eas, and do bet­ter work in stor­ing wa­ter. All these aim to so­lid­ify Bei­jing's wa­ter re­source foun­da­tion, enhancing the car­ry­ing ca­pac­ity of the city, and de­liv­er­ing a bet­ter sense of gain and hap­pi­ness to res­i­dents in ur­ban and ru­ral ar­eas.

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