Sus­tain­able Agri­cul­ture Con­tin­ues to Grow

Beijing (English) - - CONTENTS - Trans­lated by Wang Hui­hui Edited by Mark Zuiderveld

Bei­jing Mu­nic­i­pal Soil and Fer­tiliser Work­sta­tion pro­vides re­li­able sup­port for green, low- car­bon and sus­tain­able de­vel­op­ment of mod­ern agri­cul­ture in the Bei­jing-tian­jinHe­bei re­gion.

Cen­tring on the ver­sa­til­ity, di­ver­sity, in­te­gra­tion, high tech, rep­u­ta­tion and prac­ti­ca­bil­ity of Bei­jing's sus­tain­able agri­cul­ture, Bei­jing Mu­nic­i­pal Soil and Fer­tiliser Work­sta­tion has in­creased its ef­forts in sci­en­tific and tech­no­log­i­cal in­no­va­tion and pro­mo­tion, pro­vid­ing re­li­able sup­port for the green, cir­cu­lar, low- car­bon and sus­tain­able de­vel­op­ment of Bei­jing and even the Bei­jing-tian­jin-he­bei re­gion's mod­ern agri­cul­ture.

The work­sta­tion in­no­vates its tech­nolo­gies, prod­ucts, con­cepts, ser­vices and work­ing meth­ods. Thanks to its in­no­va­tion, the work­sta­tion has led the city's mod­ern agri­cul­ture in a good di­rec­tion.

Since 2007, Zhao Yongzhi has lead the work­sta­tion to pro­mote tech­nolo­gies, test soils, im­prove fer­tilis­ers, up­grade meth­ods, at­tract pref­er­en­tial poli­cies, im­ple­ment agri­cul­tural sup­ply-side re­form, and pro­mote and sell pro­duce with high qual­ity at a rea­son­able price. Af­ter ten years, agri­cul­ture in subur­ban Bei­jing has sig­nif­i­cantly im­proved its soil fertility, re­duced the amount of fer­tiliser ap­plied, re­lieved non-point source pol­lu­tion, up­graded the agri­cul­tural in­dus­try, guar­an­teed the high qual­ity and rea­son­able price of lo­cal pro­duce, and con­trib­uted to a healthy eco­log­i­cal en­vi­ron­ment.

In­no­va­tive De­vel­op­ment

Over the past decade, Bei­jing Mu­nic­i­pal Soil and Fer­tiliser Work­sta­tion has been in­no­va­tive in in­ves­ti­gat­ing and study­ing proper work­ing prin­ci­ples in its new sit­u­a­tion—all the staff mem­bers are re­quired to fo­cus on pub­lic wel­fare and ser­vice, as well as ba­sic, long-term and sci­en­tific work. They spare no ef­fort to test soil con­stituents, up­grade their smart soil and fer­tilis­ers, and con­duct in-depth re­search in tech­nolo­gies and fields.

The work­sta­tion has put for­ward a se­ries of in­no­va­tive con­cepts, such as “set­ting a min­i­mum stan­dard for farm­land qual­ity,” “de­vel­op­ing low-car­bon agri­cul­ture,” “soil and fer­tiliser tech­nol­ogy com­ing first” and “cre­at­ing a bet­ter fu­ture for agri­cul­ture with smart soil and fer­tiliser.” It has also in­no­vated and pro­moted its science and tech­nol­ogy of soil and fer­tiliser, cre­ated mod­ern the­o­ries and models, such as eco­log­i­cal, dig­i­tal and smart soil and fer­tiliser, and pub­lished stud­ies, in­clud­ing Re­search and Prac­tice of Smart Soil and Fer­tiliser and The­ory and Prac­tice of Eco­log­i­cal Fer­til­i­sa­tion.

Aside from con­cept in­no­va­tion, the work­sta­tion also pays at­ten­tion to sci­en­tific and tech­no­log­i­cal in­no­va­tion. To serve Bei­jing's mod­ern agri­cul­ture, the work­sta­tion has stud­ied and de­vel­oped many ad­vanced, prac­ti­cal and ef­fi­cient tech­nolo­gies and prod­ucts to in­crease agri­cul­tural yield and ef­fi­ciency, ap­plied mo­bile In­ter­net, big data, cloud com­put­ing and In­ter­net of Things, and de­vel­oped a se­ries of in­tel­li­gent prod­ucts, in­clud­ing for­mula fer­tilis­ers, in­tel­li­gent fer­tiliser prepa­ra­tion ma­chines, soil test­ing and cus­tomised fer­tiliser sys­tem and fer­til­i­sa­tion guid­ance app. Ac­cord­ing to a rough es­ti­mate, the pro­mo­tion of soil and fer­tiliser tech­nol­ogy can gen­er­ate ben­e­fits of hun­dreds of mil­lions yuan each year.

The sci­en­tific and tech­no­log­i­cal in­no­va­tion of smart soil and fer­tiliser has sparked a craze in Bei­jing, de­vel­op­ing var­i­ous ef­fi­cient, eco­log­i­cal and se­cure prod­ucts which have gone through rapid pro­mo­tion and ap­pli­ca­tion in the Bei­jingTian­jin-he­bei re­gion.

Pre­cise Fer­til­i­sa­tion

The prin­ci­ple of soil test­ing and cus­tomised fer­til­i­sa­tion is sim­ple—giv­ing the soil what it lacks in terms of va­ri­eties and amounts, to achieve nu­tri­tional bal­ance, meet the needs of crops, im­prove fer­tiliser ef­fi­ciency, im­prove crop yield and qual­ity, save on labour costs and in­crease in­come.

Bei­jing's soil test­ing and cus­tomised fer­til­i­sa­tion project be­gan in 2006, and cov­ered the city's ma­jor crops in 2012, cre­at­ing a mir­a­cle of agri­cul­tural tech­nol­ogy pro­mo­tion. Zhao Yongzhi and his team have achieved re­mark­able re­sults in the city's agri­cul­tural in­dus­try.

To ap­ply for­mula fer­tiliser in the farm­land, Bei­jing Mu­nic­i­pal Soil and Fer­tiliser Work­sta­tion has in­te­grated fer­tiliser pro­duc­tion and sale en­ter­prises to jointly pro­mote soil test­ing and cus­tomised fer­tiliser tech­nolo­gies. It takes the lead in es­tab­lish­ing a tech­no­log­i­cal lo­gis­tics net­work which in­te­grates agri­cul­tural tech­nol­ogy pro­mo­tion sys­tem, man­u­fac­tur­ing en­ter­prises and cir­cu­la­tion par­ties, com­bin­ing farm­ers, fer­tiliser sell­ers and tech­nol­ogy pro­mo­tion agen­cies, as well as soil test­ing and cus­tomised fer­tiliser tech­nol­ogy, and fer­tiliser pro­duc­tion. Through in­no­va­tion, the work­sta­tion fully mo­bilises farm­ers, en­ter­prises and agri­cul­tural tech­nol­ogy pro­mo­tion agen­cies to cre­ate five ser­vice models in cus­tomised fer­til­i­sa­tion: one-stop model, work­sta­tion-toen­ter­prise model, chain dis­tri­bu­tion model, agri­cul­tural ma­te­rial-par­tic­i­pa­tion model and tech­nol­ogy-to-farmer model. These mea­sures help farm­ers ap­ply soil test­ing and cus­tomised fer­tiliser tech­nolo­gies.

To bet­ter utilise soil test­ing and cus­tomised fer­tiliser tech­nolo­gies, Bei­jing Mu­nic­i­pal Soil and Fer­tiliser Work­sta­tion has es­tab­lished farm­ers' pro­fes­sional co­op­er­a­tives, ur­ban agri­cul­ture science and tech­nol­ogy court­yards and in­tel­li­gent fer­tiliser prepa­ra­tion sta­tions. It has also es­tab­lished schools for farm­ers to pro­mote soil test­ing and cus­tomised fer­tiliser tech­nolo­gies through co­op­er­a­tive events, ex­pert con­sul­ta­tion and pre­cise tech­nolo­gies, cre­at­ing a rapid ap­pli­ca­tion plat­form for sci­en­tific and tech­ni­cal achieve­ments. From 2007 to 2016, the work­sta­tion ap­plied tech­nolo­gies in over 2,741,826 hectares of land, with its tech­ni­cal cov­er­age rate of over 85 per­cent; the crop yield was in­creased by 12.366 bil­lion kilo­grams; the ex­pen­di­ture was cut by 3.752 bil­lion yuan; the amount of fer­tiliser ap­plied was re­duced by 116,200 tons, a de­crease of 30 per­cent, equal to re­duc­ing emis­sions by 429,700 tons of car­bon diox­ide.

The Soil Test­ing and Cus­tomised Fer­tiliser Tech­nol­ogy Pro­mo­tion Project was awarded the First Prize of Bei­jing's Agri­cul­tural Tech­nol­ogy Pro­mo­tion and the First Har­vest Prize by the Min­istry of Agri­cul­ture. Through years of prac­tice, soil test­ing and cus­tomised fer­til­i­sa­tion not only achieves re­mark­able re­sults in cul­ti­vat­ing high- end agri­cul­tural prod­ucts, but also plays a ma­jor role in con­trol­ling non-point source pol­lu­tion in the north­ern sec­tion of the Bei­jing–hangzhou Grand Canal and de­vel­op­ing low- car­bon agri­cul­ture.

In the mean­time, the Soil Test­ing and Cus­tomised Fer­tiliser Tech­nol­ogy Pro­mo­tion Project helps the work­sta­tion es­tab­lish four ma­jor in­no­va­tion sys­tems, namely soil test­ing and cus­tomised fer­tiliser tech­nol­ogy sys­tem, soil re­source man­age­ment in­for­ma­tion sys­tem, farm­land nutri­ent re­source com­pre­hen­sive man­age­ment tech­nol­ogy sys­tem, and in­te­grated ser­vice sys­tem. The four ma­jor in­no­va­tion sys­tems have pro­moted the con­cept “dig­i­tal, eco­log­i­cal and smart soil and fer­tiliser.”

Af­ter test­ing nu­tri­ents of the city's cul­ti­vated land and soil, the work­sta­tion has found out the soil qual­ity and fertility sta­tus in subur­ban Bei­jing, for­mu­lat­ing spe­cific fer­til­i­sa­tion plans for grains, veg­eta­bles, fruit trees and ma­jor crops, and de­vel­op­ing soil test­ing and a cus­tomised fer­til­i­sa­tion ex­pert rec­om­men­da­tion sys­tem. Thanks to Bei­jing's soil and fer­tiliser database, farm­ers can log onto www.bjtf.org to ob­tain an elec­tronic pre­scrip­tion of soil test­ing, achiev­ing pre­cise man­age­ment of soils and fer­tilis­ers, and avoid­ing arable land degra­da­tion, food pol­lu­tion, eco­log­i­cal cri­sis and global warm­ing caused by tra­di­tional ex­ten­sive man­age­ment.

The database cov­ers soil spa­tial dis­tri­bu­tion reg­u­lar­i­ties, types, ar­eas, or­ganic mat­ters and ph val­ues. The user just needs to type the code of land or the name of vil­lage in a search to ob­tain de­tailed in­for­ma­tion of rel­e­vant farm­land and soil. The in­for­ma­tion and data are up­dated from time to time.

In ad­di­tion, the database also stores soil bound­aries, soil types, land­forms, drainage and irrigation sys­tems, soil test­ing re­sults from the past 30 years, fer­tilis­ers and an­nual yield in subur­ban Bei­jing. Af­ter analysing the

data, ex­perts can lo­cate farm­land with low yield, com­pare rel­e­vant fac­tors, dis­cover the main fac­tors af­fect­ing the growth of crops, and cus­tomise a pre­cise fer­til­i­sa­tion plan for land and crops. Backed by the digi­ti­sa­tion and pre­ci­sion of soil test­ing and cus­tomised fer­til­i­sa­tion, smart soil and fer­tiliser guar­an­tee pre­cise fer­til­i­sa­tion.

Smart soil and fer­tiliser utilise in­for­ma­tion tech­nol­ogy to achieve in­tel­li­gent per­cep­tion, early warn­ings, anal­y­sis and ex­pert guid­ance in the soil and fer­tiliser pro­duc­tion en­vi­ron­ment, pro­mote the pre­cise soil, fer­tiliser and wa­ter man­age­ment, strengthen mon­i­tor­ing over farm­land qual­ity and fertility, pro­mote in­tel­li­gent su­per­vi­sion of soil and fer­tiliser, and im­prove ser­vice of smart soil and fer­tiliser. As the smart soil and fer­tiliser sci­en­tific and tech­no­log­i­cal in­no­va­tion ac­tiv­i­ties de­velop rapidly, many ef­fi­cient, eco-friendly and se­cure tech­nolo­gies and prod­ucts have ad­vanced its rapid pro­mo­tion and ap­pli­ca­tion in the Bei­jing-tian­jin-he­bei re­gion.

The ap­pli­ca­tion of smart soil and fer­tiliser is more than pre­cise. Staff mem­bers of Bei­jing Mu­nic­i­pal Soil and Fer­tiliser Work­sta­tion work to deepen re­form, stick to ideas in smart soil and fer­tilis­ers, lead tech­no­log­i­cal in­no­va­tion and de­vel­op­ment, and im­ple­ment an In­ter­net plus con­cept. Based on the con­struc­tion of eco­log­i­cal parks, they carry out pi­lot ap­pli­ca­tion of in­te­grated wa­ter and fer­tiliser con­trol tech­nolo­gies to cre­ate an in­tel­li­gent sup­ply and con­trol that meets the de­mands of crops for wa­ter and fer­tiliser and achieves smart nutri­ent sup­ply. They also cre­ate on­line and off­line agri­cul­tural tech­nol­ogy ser­vice models to pro­mote pre­cise ser­vices of soil and fer­tiliser tech­nol­ogy. Based on the Bei­jingTian­jin-he­bei soil and fer­tiliser big data plat­form, a com­pre­hen­sive, ac­cu­rate, dy­namic, open and or­derly data sys­tem has been built to fur­ther pro­mote in­dus­try de­vel­op­ment through digi­ti­sa­tion, in­for­ma­tion­i­sa­tion and ar­ti­fi­cial in­tel­li­gence.

Model In­no­va­tion

To adapt to the de­vel­op­ment of mod­ern agri­cul­ture and a new so­cial­ist coun­try­side, Bei­jing Mu­nic­i­pal Soil and Fer­tiliser Work­sta­tion has made in­no­va­tions in tech­nol­ogy pro­mo­tion ser­vices. At the same time, to speed up the trans­for­ma­tion and pro­mo­tion of sci­en­tific and tech­no­log­i­cal achieve­ments, the work­sta­tion con­tin­ues to in­no­vate co­op­er­a­tion models, such as the work­sta­tion–in­sti­tute, work­sta­tion– en­ter­prise, work­sta­tion– county and work­sta­tion–town co­op­er­a­tion models. These mea­sures ex­pand the co­op­er­a­tion space and chan­nels among agri­cul­tural re­search, teach­ing and pro­mo­tion units, achiev­ing re­source shar­ing, com­ple­men­tary ad­van­tages, and ben­e­fi­cial re­sults.

The work­sta­tion up­holds its de­vel­op­ment con­cept “soil and fer­tiliser tech­nol­ogy leads green, cir­cu­lar, low-car­bon and sus­tain­able mod­ern agri­cul­ture,” pro­motes ad­vanced agri­cul­tural tech­nolo­gies, pub­li­cises favourable poli­cies and ser­vices, mo­bilises so­cial par­tic­i­pa­tion, cus­tomises wa­ter-sol­u­ble fer­tiliser, es­tab­lishes fer­tiliser-re­duc­tion parks, car­ries out vil­lage-level pro­mo­tion, and con­trib­utes to stan­dar­d­is­ing, pro­mot­ing and ap­ply­ing tech­nolo­gies, as well as re­duc­ing amount of fer­tiliser used.

These in­no­va­tive models have helped to pro­mote and ap­ply ad­vanced tech­nolo­gies since 2010, im­prov­ing the qual­ity of Bei­jing's farm­land by nearly 20 per­cent, re­duc­ing the fer­tiliser ap­plied by 30 per­cent, in­creas­ing agri­cul­tural waste util­i­sa­tion rate from less than 20 per­cent to 60 per­cent or more, in­creas­ing the qual­i­fi­ca­tion rate of or­ganic fer­tiliser from less than 20 per­cent to 90 per­cent or more, con­tribut­ing to Bei­jing's ef­fi­cient, eco­log­i­cal and low- car­bon agri­cul­ture.

High Qual­ity, Rea­son­able Price

The Bei­jing Mu­nic­i­pal Soil and Fer­tiliser Work­sta­tion has al­ways ad­hered to a con­cept of high-end, ef­fi­cient and dis­tinc­tive de­vel­op­ment can help ur­ban agri­cul­ture boom. Af­ter 10 years of ex­plo­ration and with the help of soil and fer­tiliser tech­nolo­gies, the work­sta­tion has sig­nif­i­cantly im­proved the qual­ity of Bei­jing's pro­duce, cul­ti­vated sev­eral dis­tinc­tive lo­cal brands, such as Yan­qing's grapes and Dax­ing's wa­ter­mel­ons, and show­cased subur­ban Bei­jing's high-end, di­ver­si­fied and lead­ing agri­cul­ture. Many of these tech­nolo­gies have now been in­tro­duced to other prov­inces and mu­nic­i­pal­i­ties and im­proved both the qual­ity and ef­fi­ciency of lo­cal agri­cul­ture.

Bei­jing will fur­ther pro­mote soil test­ing and cus­tomised fer­til­i­sa­tion in mod­ern agri­cul­ture so as to im­prove soil, and achieve a high qual­ity and yield of agri­cul­tural prod­ucts.

Smart soil and fer­tiliser will ad­just the taste and qual­ity of agri­cul­tural prod­ucts, lay­ing the foun­da­tion for more rea­son­able prices of agri­cul­tural prod­ucts.

On Jan­uary 1, 2016, the Bei­jing Mu­nic­i­pal Soil and Fer­tiliser Work­sta­tion an­nounced 10 typ­i­cal cases of high qual­ity and rea­son­able price, in­clud­ing Chang­ping Xinchengyuan Pro­fes­sional Fruit Co­op­er­a­tive (straw­berry) and Yan­qing Jinli Pro­fes­sional Plant­ing Co­op­er­a­tive (grape). In the past 10 years, the qual­ity of cul­ti­vated land in subur­ban Bei­jing has been sig­nif­i­cantly im­proved, and agri­cul­tural prod­ucts have em­barked on cost-ef­fec­tive, high-qual­ity, com­pet­i­tive and sus­tain­able de­vel­op­ment.

Re­gional Co­op­er­a­tion

Bei­jing's soil and fer­tiliser work con­forms to the co­or­di­nated de­vel­op­ment of the Bei­jingTian­jin-he­bei re­gion, grad­u­ally achiev­ing an­in­te­gra­tive growth in the re­gion. Two years ago, the Bei­jing-tian­jin-he­bei Soil, Fer­tiliser and Wa­ter Co­or­di­nated De­vel­op­ment and In­no­va­tion Al­liance was es­tab­lished to ad­vance smart soil and fer­tiliser, pro­mote ef­fi­cient fer­til­i­sa­tion and irrigation, re­deem pol­luted soil, bet­ter utilise soil, fer­tiliser and wa­ter re­sources, ap­ply the In­ter­net of Things, and in­crease re­gional land yield, re­source util­i­sa­tion, tech­nol­ogy con­tri­bu­tion rate and labour pro­duc­tiv­ity.

On July 27, 2017, the Five-year Plan for the Co­or­di­nated De­vel­op­ment of Soil, Fer­tiliser and Wa­ter in the Bei­jing-tian­jin-he­bei Re­gion (2016–2020) was re­leased. It makes it clear to ad­vance smart soil and fer­tiliser, im­prove the fertility of re­gional cul­ti­vated land by 0.5 lev­els or more, in­crease the util­i­sa­tion rates of fer­tiliser and wa­ter con­ser­vancy by 40 per­cent and 10 per­cent re­spec­tively, and es­tab­lish an ex­am­ple for the ef­fi­cient util­i­sa­tion of soil, fer­tiliser and wa­ter for the rest of China.

To bet­ter im­ple­ment the plan, de­velop re­gional green agri­cul­ture, and pro­mote the ef­fi­cient util­i­sa­tion of soil, fer­tiliser and wa­ter in the three places, Bei­jing Mu­nic­i­pal Soil and Fer­tiliser Work­sta­tion has been com­mit­ted to sev­eral key tasks, in­clud­ing build­ing 100 soil, fer­tiliser and wa­ter demon­stra­tion parks, con­trol­ling non-point source pol­lu­tion, im­prov­ing re­gional ecol­ogy, and cre­at­ing a pre­cise man­age­ment sys­tem for re­gional smart soil and fer­tiliser.

Re­ly­ing on the Bei­jing-tian­jin-he­bei smart soil and fer­tiliser big data plat­form, the three ar­eas will pro­mote re­gional In­ter­net plus soil and fer­tiliser ser­vices, to achieve new de­vel­op­ment in the soil, fer­tiliser and wa­ter in­dus­try. Shar­ing busi­ness data helps these three ar­eas in­te­grate soil and fer­tiliser re­sources, im­prove re­gional agri­cul­ture and ecol­ogy, and pro­mote re­gional de­vel­op­ment with dig­i­tal and in­tel­li­gent ser­vices.

Forg­ing Ahead

In the past ten years, Bei­jing Mu­nic­i­pal Soil and Fer­tiliser Work­sta­tion have been awarded 57 na­tional, pro­vin­cial and min­is­te­rial science and tech­nol­ogy awards, pub­lished more than 200 aca­demic pa­pers and 30 mono­graphs, and re­ceived 28 patents. To strengthen its tal­ent team and achieve cross­re­gional co­op­er­a­tion and ex­change, the work­sta­tion has co­op­er­ated with agri­cul­tural re­search in­sti­tutes, agri­cul­tural en­ter­prises, gov­ern­ment de­part­ments and agri­cul­tural pro­mo­tion agen­cies, and grad­u­ally formed com­pre­hen­sive co­op­er­a­tion models.

In re­cent years, over 60 staff mem­bers of the work­sta­tion have gone to Europe, the US and other places for aca­demic ex­changes. The Peo­ple’s Daily, Guang­ming Daily, Eco­nomic Daily, Science and Tech­nol­ogy Daily, Farm­ers’ Daily, Bei­jing Daily and other news­pa­pers and main­stream me­dia have re­ported on the work­sta­tion many times. The sto­ries of Bei­jing's soil and fer­tiliser in­no­va­tion have even been re­ported by in­ter­na­tional me­dia.

Led by Zhao Yongzhi, staff mem­bers of Bei­jing Mu­nic­i­pal Soil and Fer­tiliser Work­sta­tion firmly be­lieve that in­no­va­tive ideas lead to green agri­cul­ture. They ad­here to the green de­vel­op­ment con­cept of pro­duc­tion, ecol­ogy and life, give pri­or­ity to im­prov­ing the qual­ity of agri­cul­tural prod­ucts, and strive to im­prove the agri­cul­tural eco­log­i­cal en­vi­ron­ment and pro­vide peo­ple with leisure and tourism. Sci­en­tific and tech­no­log­i­cal in­no­va­tion helps them save re­sources, im­prove re­source util­i­sa­tion ef­fi­ciency and achieve high qual­ity and rea­son­able price of agri­cul­tural prod­ucts. They also in­no­vate poli­cies, de­velop green, cir­cu­lar and low-car­bon agri­cul­ture, and pro­vide com­pre­hen­sive ser­vices for mod­ern agri­cul­ture to en­sure its healthy and sus­tain­able de­vel­op­ment.

Zhao Yongzhi (left) introduces about straw­ber­ries grown cul­ti­va­tion tech­nol­ogy.

A tem­per­a­ture hu­mid­ity me­ter in a straw­berry green­house

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