Ad­min­is­tra­tions of Ti­bet down the ages

China Daily (Canada) - - TIBET -

THE TUBO KING­DOM

(AD 618-842)

THE GUGE KING­DOM IN

WESTERN TI­BET

THE YUAN DY­NASTY

(1271-1368)

THE MING DY­NASTY

(1368-1644)

THE QING DY­NASTY

(1644-1911)

THE RE­PUB­LIC OF CHINA

THE PEO­PLE’S RE­PUB­LIC

OF CHINA Source: The of­fi­cial web­site of the Chi­nese Em­bassy to Nepal

HU YONGQI

In the early 7th cen­tury, Songt­san Gambo, the 33rd Tsenpo, or king, of the Tubo tribe, who was also the high­est-ranked leader in Ti­bet, united more than 10 tribes to es­tab­lish an em­pire called the Tubo King­dom, also known as the Ti­betan Em­pire, which had its cap­i­tal where Lhasa now stands.

Songt­san Gambo en­joyed good re­la­tions with the Tang Dy­nasty (AD 618-907). His rule ben­e­fit­ted from tech­nolo­gies in­vented by Tang ar­ti­sans, and he was in­flu­enced by Tang cul­ture and pol­i­tics.

In 641, Songt­san Gambo mar­ried Princess Wencheng, a mem­ber of the Tang royal fam­ily.

In 710, another Tang princess Jincheng, was sent from Chang’an, now Xi’an in Shaanxi province, to Ti­bet to marry the Tubo king, Tride Tsugt­sen. In 821, Tubo sent en­voys to Chang’an to form an al­liance with the Tang court called the “Changqing Al­liance” by his­to­ri­ans.

The Tubo King­dom fell apart in about 842 .

Skyid-lde-ny­ima-mgon, a di­rect off­spring of Songt­san Gambo, founded the three king­doms in western Ti­bet, in­clud­ing the Guge King­dom, in about 912. The king­dom was cen­tered in present­day Zanda county, Ngari pre­fec­ture, the high­est pre­fec­ture in the re­gion. The king­dom em­ployed cal­en­dars, medicine and astrology. The king­dom was con­quered by the fifth Dalai Lama in about 1680, and the ru­ins are a must-see des­ti­na­tion for visi­tors to Ngari.

Ti­bet for­mally came un­der the con­trol of the Yuan Dy­nasty (1271-1368), and the Pagmo Gagyu sect, headed by Qamqoi Gyain­cain, as­sumed power. Yuan rulers gave Qamqoi Gyain­cain the ti­tle of Grand Min­is­ter of Ed­u­ca­tion. sect who could claim lo­cal po­lit­i­cal power was given an honorary ti­tle by the Ming court. Ac­ces­sion to the throne of the Ti­betan King­dom was sub­ject to ap­proval by the em­peror, who dis­patched of­fi­cials to de­liver a cer­tifi­cate ac­knowl­edg­ing the ti­tle.

In 1644, the Qing Dy­nasty over­threw the Ming Dy­nasty and tight­ened con­trol over Ti­bet, bring­ing in­creased sys­tem­iza­tion and an ex­panded le­gal frame­work.

In 1652, the fifth Dalai Lama vis­ited Bei­jing, then the Qing cap­i­tal, at the in­vi­ta­tion of the Em­peror Shun­zhi. In 1653, Shun­zhi pre­sented the Dalai Lama with a cer­tifi­cate of ap­point­ment made from gold leaf and a gold seal of au­thor­ity, thus for­mally rec­og­niz­ing his sta­tus as the Dalai Lama.

In 1713, the Em­peror Kangxi hon­ored the fifth Panchen Lama, Lob­sang Yeshe, by for­mally rec­og­niz­ing him as the Panchen Er­deni. Fol­low­ing this, the Dalai Lama in Lhasa ruled over the greater part of Ti­bet and the Panchen Lama, based in Xigaze, ruled the re­main­der. In 1727 the Qing court ap­pointed a res­i­dent com­mis­sioner (called an Am­ban) as the gov­ern­ment’s rep­re­sen­ta­tive in Ti­bet to over­see ad­min­is­tra­tive af­fairs.

In 1793 the Qing gov­ern­ment is­sued a 29-ar­ti­cle or­di­nance deal­ing with the au­thor­ity of the Am­ban, the rein­car­na­tions of the Dalai Lama, the Panchen Lama and other im­por­tant Liv­ing Bud­dhas. The ba­sic prin­ci­ples re­mained the stan­dard for Ti­bet’s ad­min­is­tra­tive and le­gal sys­tems for more than 100 years.

In 1912, the Bureau for Mon­go­lian and Ti­betan Af­fairs was es­tab­lished by the gov­ern­ment of the Re­pub­lic of China to over­see and man­age Ti­betan af­fairs. The pol­icy con­tin­ued un­til the found­ing of the Peo­ple’s Re­pub­lic of China in 1949.

In 1951, rep­re­sen­ta­tives of the cen­tral gov­ern­ment and the gov­ern­ment of Ti­bet agreed to the peace­ful lib­er­a­tion of Ti­bet.

In 1954, the 14th Dalai Lama was elected vice-chair­man of the Stand­ing Com­mit­tee of the Na­tional Peo­ple’s Congress and the 10th Panchen Er­deni be­came a mem­ber of the NPC Stand­ing Com­mit­tee when the two monks at­tended the NPC’s first ses­sion in Bei­jing.

In 1956, the Prepara­tory Com­mit­tee for the Found­ing of the Ti­bet au­ton­o­mous re­gion was es­tab­lished and was presided over by the 14th Dalai Lama.

In March 1959, the Ti­betan gov­ern­ment launched a re­bel­lion to sep­a­rate the coun­try and op­pose re­form. The cen­tral gov­ern­ment quickly or­dered the dis­so­lu­tion of the gov­ern­ment.

In 1965, the Ti­bet au­ton­o­mous re­gion was founded.

Newspapers in English

Newspapers from China

© PressReader. All rights reserved.