His­tory and law back China’s sovereignty

Bei­jing will res­o­lutely up­hold its le­git­i­mate mar­itime rights and in­ter­ests in the South China Sea

China Daily (Canada) - - DOCUMENT -

The State Coun­cil In­for­ma­tion Of­fice of the Peo­ple’s Repub­lic of China on Wed­nes­day pub­lished a white pa­per ti­tled “China Ad­heres to the Po­si­tion of Set­tling Through Ne­go­ti­a­tion the Rel­e­vant Dis­putes Be­tween China and the Philip­pines in the South China Sea”.

Fol­low­ing is the full text of the white pa­per:

In­tro­duc­tion

Nan­hai Zhu­dao are China’s In­her­ent Ter­ri­tory

China’s sovereignty over Nan­hai Zhu­dao is es­tab­lished in the course of his­tory

China has al­ways been res­o­lute in up­hold­ing its ter­ri­to­rial sovereignty and mar­itime rights and in­ter­ests in the South China Sea

China’s sovereignty over Nan­hai Zhu­dao is widely ac­knowl­edged in the in­ter­na­tional com­mu­nity Ori­gin of the Rel­e­vant Dis­putes Be­tween China and the Philip­pines in the South China Sea

The Philip­pines’ in­va­sion and il­le­gal oc­cu­pa­tion caused dis­putes with China over some is­lands and reefs of Nan­sha Qun­dao

The Philip­pines’ il­le­gal claim has no his­tor­i­cal or le­gal ba­sis

The de­vel­op­ment of the in­ter­na­tional law of the sea gave rise to the dis­pute be­tween China and the Philip­pines over mar­itime de­lim­i­ta­tion

China and the Philip­pines Have Reached Con­sen­sus on Set­tling Their Rel­e­vant Dis­putes in the South China Sea

It is the con­sen­sus and com­mit­ment of China and the Philip­pines to set­tle through ne­go­ti­a­tion their rel­e­vant dis­putes in the South China Sea

It is the con­sen­sus of China and the Philip­pines to prop­erly man­age rel­e­vant dis­putes in the South China Sea

The Philip­pines Has Re­peat­edly Taken Moves that Com­pli­cate the Rel­e­vant Dis­putes

The Philip­pines at­tempts to en­trench its il­le­gal oc­cu­pa­tion of some is­lands and reefs of China’s Nan­sha Qun­dao

The Philip­pines has in­creas­ingly in­ten­si­fied its in­fringe­ment of China’s mar­itime rights and in­ter­ests

The Philip­pines also has ter­ri­to­rial pre­ten­sions on China’s Huangyan Dao

The Philip­pines’ uni­lat­eral ini­ti­a­tion of ar­bi­tra­tion is an act of bad faith China’s Pol­icy on the South China Sea Is­sue

On the ter­ri­to­rial is­sues con­cern­ing Nan­sha Qun­dao

On mar­itime de­lim­i­ta­tion in the South China Sea

On the ways and means of dis­pute set­tle­ment

On man­ag­ing dif­fer­ences and en­gag­ing in prac­ti­cal mar­itime co­op­er­a­tion in the South China Sea

On free­dom and safety of nav­i­ga­tion in the South China Sea

On jointly up­hold­ing peace and sta­bil­ity in the South China Sea 4. As neigh­bors fac­ing each other across the sea, China and the Philip­pines have closely en­gaged in ex­changes, and the two peo­ples have en­joyed friend­ship over gen­er­a­tions. There had been no ter­ri­to­rial or mar­itime de­lim­i­ta­tion dis­putes be­tween the two states un­til the 1970s when the Philip­pines started to in­vade and il­le­gally oc­cupy some is­lands and reefs of China’s Nan­sha Qun­dao, cre­at­ing a ter­ri­to­rial is­sue with China over these is­lands and reefs. In ad­di­tion, with the de­vel­op­ment of the in­ter­na­tional law of the sea, a mar­itime de­lim­i­ta­tion dis­pute also arose be­tween the two states re­gard­ing cer­tain mar­itime ar­eas of the South China Sea.

5. China and the Philip­pines have not yet had any ne­go­ti­a­tion de­signed to set­tle their rel­e­vant dis­putes in the South China Sea. How­ever, the two coun­tries did hold mul­ti­ple rounds of con­sul­ta­tions on the proper man­age­ment of dis­putes at sea and reached con­sen­sus on re­solv­ing through ne­go­ti­a­tion and con­sul­ta­tion the rel­e­vant dis­putes, which has been re­peat­edly reaf­firmed in a num­ber of bi­lat­eral doc­u­ments. The two coun­tries have also made solemn com­mit­ment to set­tling rel­e­vant dis­putes through ne­go­ti­a­tion and con­sul­ta­tion in the 2002 Dec­la­ra­tion on the Con­duct of Par­ties in the South China Sea (DOC) that China and the ASEAN Mem­ber States jointly signed.

6. In Jan­uary 2013, the then gov­ern­ment of the Repub­lic of the Philip­pines turned its back on the above-men­tioned con­sen­sus and com­mit­ment, and uni­lat­er­ally ini­ti­ated the South China Sea ar­bi­tra­tion. The Philip­pines de­lib­er­ately mis­char­ac­ter­ized and pack­aged the ter­ri­to­rial is­sue which is not sub­ject to the United Na­tions Con­ven­tion on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and the mar­itime de­lim­i­ta­tion dis­pute which has been ex­cluded from the UNCLOS dis­pute set­tle­ment pro­ce­dures by China’s 2006 op­tional ex­cep­tions dec­la­ra­tion pur­suant to Ar­ti­cle 298 of UNCLOS. This act is a wan­ton abuse of the UNCLOS dis­pute set­tle­ment pro­ce­dures. In do­ing so, the Philip­pines at­tempts to deny China’s ter­ri­to­rial sovereignty and mar­itime rights and in­ter­ests in the South China Sea.

7. This pa­per aims to clar­ify the facts and tell the truth be­hind the rel­e­vant dis­putes be­tween China and the Philip­pines in the South China Sea, and to reaf­firm China’s con­sis­tent po­si­tion and pol­icy on the South China Sea is­sue, in or­der to get to the root of the is­sue and set the record straight. 8. The Chi­nese peo­ple have since an­cient times lived and en­gaged in pro­duc­tion ac­tiv­i­ties on Nan­hai Zhu­dao and in rel­e­vant wa­ters. China is the first to have dis­cov­ered, named, and ex­plored and ex­ploited Nan­hai Zhu­dao and rel­e­vant wa­ters, and the first to have con­tin­u­ously, peace­fully and ef­fec­tively ex­er­cised sovereignty and ju­ris­dic­tion over them, thus es­tab­lish­ing sovereignty over Nan­hai Zhu­dao and the rel­e­vant rights and in­ter­ests in the South China Sea.

9. As early as the 2nd cen­tury BCE in the West­ern Han Dy­nasty, the Chi­nese peo­ple sailed in the South China Sea and dis­cov­ered Nan­hai Zhu­dao in the long course of ac­tiv­i­ties.

10. A lot of Chi­nese his­tor­i­cal lit­er­a­tures chron­i­cle the ac­tiv­i­ties of the Chi­nese peo­ple in the South China Sea. These books in­clude, among oth­ers, Yi Wu Zhi (An Ac­count of Strange Things) pub­lished in the East­ern Han Dy­nasty (25-220), Fu Nan Zhuan (An Ac­count of Fu Nan) dur­ing the pe­riod of the Three King­doms (220-280), Meng Liang Lu (Record of a Day­dreamer) and Ling Wai Dai Da (Notes for the Land be­yond the Passes) in the Song Dy­nasty (960-1279), Dao Yi Zhi Lüe (A Brief Ac­count of the Is­lands) in the Yuan Dy­nasty (1271-1368), Dong Xi Yang Kao (Stud­ies on the Oceans East and West) and Shun Feng Xiang Song (Fair Winds for Es­cort) in the Ming Dy­nasty (1368-1644) and Zhi Nan Zheng Fa (Com­pass Di­rec­tions) and Hai Guo Wen Jian Lu (Records of Things Seen and Heard about the Coastal Re­gions) in the Qing Dy­nasty (1644-1911). These books also record the ge­o­graph­i­cal lo­ca­tions and ge­o­mor­pho­logic char­ac­ter­is­tics of Nan­hai Zhu­dao as well as hy­dro­graph­i­cal and me­te­o­ro­log­i­cal con­di­tions of the South China Sea. These books record vividly de­scrip­tive names the Chi­nese peo­ple gave to Nan­hai Zhu­dao, such as “Zhang­haiqi­tou” (twisted atolls on the ris­ing sea), “Shan­huzhou” (coral cays), “Ji­u­ru­lu­ozhou” (nine isles of cowry), “Shi­tang” (rocky reefs), “Qian­lishi­tang” (thou­sand-li rocky reefs), “Wan­lishi­tang” (ten thou­sand-li rocky reefs), “Chang­sha” (long sand cays), “Qian­lichang­sha” (thou­sand-li sand cays), and “Wan­lichang­sha” (ten thou­sand-li sand cays).

11. The Chi­nese fish­er­men have de­vel­oped a rel­a­tively fixed nam­ing sys­tem for the var­i­ous com­po­nents of Nan­hai Zhu­dao in the long process of ex­plo­ration and ex­ploita­tion of the South China Sea. Un­der this sys­tem, is­lands and shoals have be­come known as “Zhi”; reefs “Chan”, “Xian”, or “Sha”; atolls “Kuang”, “Quan” or “Tang”; and banks “Sha­pai”. Geng Lu Bu (Man­ual of Sea Routes), a kind of nav­i­ga­tion guide­book for Chi­nese fish­er­men’s jour­neys be­tween the coastal re­gions of China’s main­land and Nan­hai Zhu­dao, came into be­ing and cir­cu­la­tion in the Ming and Qing Dy­nas­ties, and has been handed down in var­i­ous edi­tions and ver­sions of hand­writ­ten copies and is still in use even to­day. It shows that the Chi­nese peo­ple lived and car­ried out pro­duc­tion ac­tiv­i­ties on, and how they named Nan­hai Zhu­dao. Geng Lu Bu records names for at least 70 is­lands, reefs, shoals and cays of Nan­sha Qun­dao. Some were named af­ter com­pass di­rec­tions in Chi­nese ren­di­tions, such as Chouwei (Zhubi Jiao) and Dong­tou Yixin (Pengbo An­sha); some were named af­ter lo­cal aquatic prod­ucts in the sur­round­ing wa­ters such as Chigua Xian (Chigua Jiao, “chigua” means “red sea cu­cum­ber”) and Mogua Xian (Nan­ping Jiao, “mogua” means “black sea cu­cum­ber”); some were named af­ter their shapes, such as Niaochuan (Xian’e Jiao, “niaochuan” means “bird string”) and Shuang­dan (Xinyi Jiao, “shuang­dan” means “shoul­der poles”); some were named af­ter phys­i­cal ob­jects, such as Guo­gai Zhi (Anbo Shazhou, “guo­gai” means “pot cover”) and Cheng­gou Zhi (Jinghong Dao, “cheng­gou” means “steel­yard hook”); still some were named af­ter wa­ter­ways such as Li­u­men Sha (Li­u­men Jiao, “li­u­men” means “six door­ways”).

12. Some of the names given by the Chi­nese peo­ple to Nan­hai Zhu­dao were adopted by West­ern nav­i­ga­tors and marked in some au­thor­i­ta­tive nav­i­ga­tion guide­books and charts pub­lished in the 19th and 20th cen­turies. For in­stance, Namyit (Hongxiu Dao), Sin Cowe (Jinghong Dao) and Subi (Zhubi Jiao) orig­i­nate from “Nanyi”, “Cheng­gou” and “Chouwei” as pro­nounced in Hainan di­alects.

13. Numer­ous his­tor­i­cal doc­u­ments and ob­jects prove that the Chi­nese peo­ple have ex­plored and ex­ploited in a sus­tained way Nan­hai Zhu­dao and rel­e­vant wa­ters. Start­ing from the Ming and Qing Dy­nas­ties, Chi­nese fish­er­men sailed south­ward on the north­east­erly monsoon to Nan­sha Qun­dao and rel­e­vant wa­ters for fish­ery pro­duc­tion ac­tiv­i­ties and re­turned on the south­west­erly monsoon to the main­land the fol­low­ing year. Some of them lived on the is­lands for years, go­ing for fish­ing, dig­ging wells for fresh wa­ter, cul­ti­vat­ing land and farm­ing, build­ing huts and tem­ples, and rais­ing live­stock. Chi­nese and for­eign his­tor­i­cal lit­er­a­ture as well as ar­chae­o­log­i­cal finds show that there were crops, wells, huts, tem­ples, tombs and tablet in­scrip­tions left by Chi­nese fish­er­men on some is­lands and reefs of Nan­sha Qun­dao.

14. Many for­eign doc­u­ments also recorded the fact that dur­ing a long pe­riod of time only Chi­nese lived and worked on Nan­sha Qun­dao.

15. The China Sea Di­rec­tory pub­lished in 1868 by or­der of the Lords Com­mis­sion­ers of the Ad­mi­ralty of the United King­dom, when re­fer­ring to Zhenghe Qun­jiao of Nan­sha Qun­dao, ob­served that “Hainan fish­er­men, who sub­sist by col­lect­ing trepang and tor­toise-shell, were found upon most of these is­lands, some of whom re­main for years amongst the reefs”, and that “[t]he fish­er­men upon Itu-Aba is­land [Taip­ing Dao] were more com­fort­ably es­tab­lished than the oth­ers, and the wa­ter found in the well on that is­land was bet­ter than else­where.” The China Sea Di­rec­tory pub­lished in 1906 and The China Sea Pi­lot in its 1912, 1923 and 1937 edi­tions made in many parts ex­plicit records of the Chi­nese fish­er­men liv­ing and work­ing on Nan­sha Qun­dao.

16. The French mag­a­zine Le Monde Colo­nial Il­lus­tré pub­lished in Septem­ber 1933 con­tains the fol­low­ing records: Only Chi­nese peo­ple (Hainan na­tives) lived on the nine is­lands of Nan­sha Qun­dao and there were no peo­ple from other coun­tries. Seven were on Nanzi Dao (South West Cay), two of them were chil­dren. Five lived on Zhongye Dao (Thitu Is­land); four lived on Nan­wei Dao (Spratly Is­land), one per­son more over that of 1930. There were wor­ship stands, thatched cot­tages and wells left by the Chi­nese on Nanyao Dao (Loaita Is­land). No one was sighted on Taip­ing Dao (Itu Aba Is­land), but a tablet scripted with Chi­nese char­ac­ters was found, which said that, in that mag­a­zine’s ren­di­tion, “Moi, Ti Mung, pa­tron de jonque, suis venu ici à la pleine lune de mars pour vous porter des al­i­ments. Je n’ai trouvé per­sonne, je laisse le riz à l’abri des pier­res et je pars.” Traces were also found of fish­er­men liv­ing on the other is­lands. This mag­a­zine also records that there are abun­dant veg­e­ta­tion, wells pro­vid­ing drink­ing wa­ter, co­conut palms, banana trees, pa­paya trees, pineap­ples, green veg­eta­bles and pota­toes as well as poul­try on Taip­ing Dao, Zhongye Dao, Nan­wei Dao and other is­lands, and that these is­lands are hab­it­able.

17. Ja­panese lit­er­a­ture Bou­fuu No Shima (Stormy Is­land) pub­lished in 1940 as well as The Asi­atic Pi­lot, Vol. IV, pub­lished by the United States Hy­dro­graphic Of­fice in 1925 also have ac­counts about Chi­nese fish­er­men who lived and worked on Nan­sha Qun­dao.

18. China is the first to have con­tin­u­ously ex­er­cised au­thor­ity over Nan­hai Zhu­dao and rel­e­vant mar­itime ac­tiv­i­ties. In his­tory, China has ex­er­cised ju­ris­dic­tion in a con­tin­u­ous, peace­ful and ef­fec­tive man­ner over Nan­hai Zhu­dao and in rel­e­vant wa­ters through mea­sures such as es­tab­lish­ment of ad­min­is­tra­tive set­ups, naval pa­trols, re­sources de­vel­op­ment, astro­nom­i­cal ob­ser­va­tion and ge­o­graph­i­cal sur­vey.

19. For in­stance, in the Song Dy­nasty, China es­tab­lished a post of Jing Lüe An Fu Shi (Im­pe­rial En­voy for Man­age­ment and Paci­fi­ca­tion) in the re­gions now known as Guang­dong and Guangxi to gov­ern the south­ern ter­ri­tory. It is men­tioned in Zeng Gongliang’s Wu­jing Zongyao (Out­line Record of Mil­i­tary Af­fairs) that, in or­der to strengthen de­fense in the South China Sea, China es­tab­lished naval units to con­duct pa­trols therein. In the Qing Dy­nasty, Ming Yi’s Qiongzhou Fuzhi (Chron­i­cle of Qiongzhou Pre­fec­ture), Zhong Yuandi’s Yazhou Zhi (Chron­i­cle of Yazhou Pre­fec­ture) and oth­ers all listed “Shi­tang” and “Chang­sha” un­der the items of “mar­itime de­fense”.

20. Many of China’s lo­cal of­fi­cial records, such as Guang­dong Tong Zhi (Gen­eral Chron­i­cle of Guang­dong), Qiongzhou Fu Zhi (Chron­i­cle of Qiongzhou Pre­fec­ture) and Wanzhou Zhi (Chron­i­cle of Wanzhou), con­tain in the sec­tion on “ter­ri­tory” or “ge­og­ra­phy, moun­tains and wa­ters” a state­ment that “Wanzhou covers ‘ Qian­lichang­sha’ and ‘ Wan­lishi­tang’” or some­thing sim­i­lar.

21. The suc­ces­sive Chi­nese gov­ern­ments have marked Nan­hai Zhu­dao as Chi­nese ter­ri­tory on of­fi­cial maps, such as the 1755 Tian Xia Zong Yu Tu (Gen­eral Map of Ge­og­ra­phy of the All-un­der-heaven) of the Huang Qing Ge Zhi Sheng Fen Tu (Map of the Prov­inces Di­rectly un­der the Im­pe­rial Qing Au­thor­ity), the 1767 Da Qing Wan Nian Yi Tong Tian Xia Tu (Map of the Eter­nally Uni­fied All-un­der-heaven of the Great Qing Em­pire), the 1810 Da Qing Wan Nian Yi Tong Di Li Quan Tu (Map of the Eter­nally Uni­fied Great Qing Em­pire) and the 1817 Da Qing Yi Tong Tian Xia Quan Tu (Map of the Uni­fied All-un­der­heaven of the Great Qing Em­pire).

22. His­tor­i­cal facts show that the Chi­nese peo­ple have all along taken Nan­hai Zhu­dao and rel­e­vant wa­ters as a ground for liv­ing and pro­duc­tion, where they have en­gaged in ex­plo­ration and ex­ploita­tion ac­tiv­i­ties in var­i­ous forms. The suc­ces­sive Chi­nese gov­ern­ments have ex­er­cised ju­ris­dic­tion over Nan­hai Zhu­dao in a con­tin­u­ous, peace­ful and ef­fec­tive man­ner. In the course of his­tory, China has es­tab­lished sovereignty over Nan­hai Zhu­dao and rel­e­vant rights and in­ter­ests in the South China Sea. The Chi­nese peo­ple have long been the mas­ter of Nan­hai Zhu­dao. 23. China’s sovereignty over Nan­hai Zhu­dao had never been chal­lenged be­fore the 20th cen­tury. When France and Ja­pan in­vaded and il­le­gally oc­cu­pied by force some is­lands and reefs of China’s Nan­sha Qun­dao in the 1930s and 1940s, the Chi­nese peo­ple rose to fight back stren­u­ously and the Chi­nese gov­ern­ment took a se­ries of mea­sures to de­fend China’s sovereignty over Nan­sha Qun­dao.

24. In 1933, France in­vaded some is­lands and reefs of Nan­sha Qun­dao and de­clared “oc­cu­pa­tion” of them in an an­nounce­ment pub­lished in Jour­nal Of­fi­ciel, cre­at­ing the “In­ci­dent of the Nine Islets”. The French ag­gres­sion trig­gered strong re­ac­tions and large scale protests from all walks of life across China. The Chi­nese fish­er­men liv­ing on Nan­sha Qun­dao also took on-site re­sis­tance against the French ag­gres­sion. Chi­nese fish­er­men Fu Hong­guang, Ke Ji­ayu, Zheng Land­ing and oth­ers cut down the posts fly­ing French flags on Taip­ing Dao, Beizi Dao, Nan­wei Dao, Zhongye Dao and oth­ers.

25. Shortly af­ter this In­ci­dent hap­pened, the Chi­nese Min­istry of For­eign Af­fairs made clear through its spokesper­son, re­fer­ring to the rel­e­vant is­lands of Nan­sha Qun­dao, that “no other peo­ple but Chi­nese fish­er­men live on the is­lands and they are rec­og­nized in­ter­na­tion­ally as Chi­nese ter­ri­tory”. The Chi­nese gov­ern­ment made strong rep­re­sen­ta­tions to the French gov­ern­ment against its ag­gres­sion. And in re­sponse to the French at­tempt to trick Chi­nese fish­er­men into hang­ing French flags, the gov­ern­ment of Guang­dong Prov­ince in­structed that ad­min­is­tra­tors of all coun­ties should is­sue pub­lic no­tice for­bid­ding all Chi­nese fish­ing ves­sels op­er­at­ing in Nan­sha Qun­dao and rel­e­vant wa­ters from hang­ing for­eign flags, and Chi­nese na­tional flags were dis­trib­uted to them to be hung on Chi­nese fish­ing ves­sels.

26. China’s Com­mit­tee for the Ex­am­i­na­tion for the Land and Sea Maps, which was com­posed of rep­re­sen­ta­tives of the Min­istry of For­eign Af­fairs, Min­istry of the In­te­rior, Min­istry of the Navy and other in­sti­tu­tions, re­viewed and ap­proved the names of in­di­vid­ual is­lands, reefs, banks and shoals of Nan­hai Zhu­dao, com­piled and pub­lished Zhong Guo Nan Hai Ge Dao Yu Tu (Map of the South China Sea Is­lands of China) in 1935.

27. Ja­pan in­vaded and il­le­gally oc­cu­pied Nan­hai Zhu­dao dur­ing its war of ag­gres­sion against China. The Chi­nese peo­ple fought hero­ically against the Ja­panese ag­gres­sion. With the ad­vance of the World’s Anti-Fas­cist War and the Chi­nese Peo­ple’s War of Re­sis­tance against Ja­panese Ag­gres­sion, China, the United States and the United King­dom solemnly de­manded in the Cairo Dec­la­ra­tion in De­cem­ber 1943 that all the ter­ri­to­ries Ja­pan had stolen from the Chi­nese shall be re­stored to China. In July 1945, China, the United States and the United King­dom is­sued the Pots­dam Procla­ma­tion. That Procla­ma­tion ex­plic­itly de­clares in Ar­ti­cle 8: “The terms of the Cairo Dec­la­ra­tion shall be car­ried out.”

28. In Au­gust 1945, Ja­pan an­nounced its ac­cep­tance of the Pots­dam Procla­ma­tion and its un­con­di­tional sur­ren­der. In Novem­ber and De­cem­ber 1946, the Chi­nese gov­ern­ment dis­patched Colonel Lin Zun and other se­nior mil­i­tary and civil of­fi­cials to Xisha Qun­dao and Nan­sha Qun­dao to re­sume ex­er­cise of au­thor­ity over these Is­lands, with com­mem­o­ra­tive cer­e­monies held, sovereignty mark­ers re-erected, and troops gar­risoned. These of­fi­cials ar­rived at these is­lands on four war­ships, namely Yongx­ing, Zhongjian, Taip­ing and Zhongye. Sub­se­quently, the Chi­nese gov­ern­ment re­named four is­lands of Xisha Qun­dao and Nan­sha Qun­dao af­ter the names of those four war­ships.

29. In March 1947, the Chi­nese gov­ern­ment es­tab­lished on Taip­ing Dao Nan­sha Qun­dao Of­fice of Ad­min­is­tra­tion and placed it un­der the ju­ris­dic­tion of Guang­dong Prov­ince. China also set up a me­te­o­ro­log­i­cal sta­tion and a ra­dio sta­tion on Taip­ing Dao, which started broad­cast­ing me­te­o­ro­log­i­cal in­for­ma­tion in June of that year.

30. On the ba­sis of a new round of ge­o­graph­i­cal sur­vey of Nan­hai Zhu­dao, the Chi­nese gov­ern­ment com­mis­sioned in 1947 the com­pi­la­tion of Nan Hai Zhu Dao Di Li Zhi Lüe (A Brief Ac­count of the Ge­og­ra­phy of the South China Sea Is­lands), re­viewed and ap­proved Nan Hai Zhu Dao Xin Jiu Ming Cheng Dui Zhao Biao (Com­par­i­son Ta­ble on the Old and New Names of the South China Sea Is­lands), and drew Nan Hai Zhu Dao Wei Zhi Tu (Lo­ca­tion Map of the South China Sea Is­lands) on which the dot­ted line is marked. In Fe­bru­ary 1948, the Chi­nese gov­ern­ment of­fi­cially pub­lished Zhong Hua Min Guo Xing Zheng Qu Yu Tu (Map of the Ad­min­is­tra­tive

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