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China’s hu­man rights ac­tion plan, re­leased on Thurs­day, aims to ex­tend the ben­e­fits of de­vel­op­ment to all.

The State Coun­cil In­for­ma­tion Of­fice of the Peo­ple’ s Repub­lic of China of China is­sued the Na­tional Hu­man Rights Ac­tion Plan of China (2016- China 2020) on Thurs­day. Fol­low­ing is the first part. is the For full text, please go to http://ow.ly/WfZP304HtPV. CON­TENTS In­tro­duc­tion I. Eco­nomic, So­cial and Cul­tural Rights (1) Right to work (2) Right to ba­sic liv­ing stan­dards (3) Right to so­cial se­cu­rity (4) Right to prop­erty (5) Right to health (6) Right to ed­u­ca­tion (7) Cul­tural rights (8) En­vi­ron­men­tal rights II. Civil and Po­lit­i­cal Rights (1) Rights of the per­son (2) Right to fair trial (3) Free­dom of re­li­gious be­lief (4) Rights to know and to par­tic­i­pate (5) Rights of ex­pres­sion and su­per­vi­sion III. Rights of Spe­cific Groups (1) Rights of eth­nic mi­nori­ties (2) Rights of women (3) Rights of chil­dren (4) Rights of the el­derly (5) Rights of the dis­abled IV. Hu­man Rights Ed­u­ca­tion and Re­search V. Ful­fill­ment of Obli­ga­tions to Hu­man Rights Con­ven­tions, and In­ter­na­tional Ex­changes and Co­op­er­a­tion in the Field of Hu­man Rights VI. Im­ple­men­ta­tion and Su­per­vi­sion In­tro­duc­tion

The pe­riod from 2016 to 2020 is a de­ci­sive stage for China in the build­ing of a mod­er­ately pros­per­ous so­ci­ety in an all­round way as well as a ma­jor stage for re­al­iz­ing the or­derly, steady and sus­tain­able de­vel­op­ment of hu­man rights in China.

China has im­ple­mented two na­tional hu­man rights ac­tion plans since 2009. As the govern­ment con­stantly en­hances the pro­tec­tion of hu­man rights, the peo­ple’s stan­dard of liv­ing and qual­ity of life have seen fur­ther im­prove­ment, their eco­nomic, so­cial and cul­tural rights and in­ter­ests have been strength­ened, their civil rights and po­lit­i­cal rights have been guar­an­teed, the pub­lic’s con­scious­ness of re­spect­ing and guar­an­tee­ing hu­man rights has en­hanced sig­nif­i­cantly, in­ter­na­tional hu­man rights ex­changes and co­op­er­a­tion have con­stantly de­vel­oped, and the cause of so­cial­ist hu­man rights with Chi­nese char­ac­ter­is­tics has moved up to a new level.

Nev­er­the­less, we are keenly aware that prob­lems, some of them se­ri­ous, re­main. China’s eco­nomic de­vel­op­ment pat­tern is still ex­ten­sive, un­bal­anced, un­co­or­di­nated and un­sus­tain­able. There is still a huge gap between ur­ban and ru­ral de­vel­op­ment. Dif­fi­cul­ties need to be solved in such fields as health care, ed­u­ca­tion, care for the aged, food and drug safety, in­come dis­tri­bu­tion and the en­vi­ron­ment -- all of which are closely re­lated to the peo­ple’s vi­tal in­ter­ests. The rule of lawin safe­guard­ing hu­man rights needs to be fur­ther pro­moted and more ef­forts are re­quired to re­al­ize higher lev­els of hu­man rights pro­tec­tion.

Based on ex­pe­ri­ence gained in the im­ple­men­ta­tion of the first and sec­ond na­tional hu­man rights ac­tion plans, the Chi­nese govern­ment has for­mu­lated the Na­tional Hu­man Rights Ac­tion Plan of China (20162020) (here­inafter re­ferred to as the Ac­tion Plan) in ac­cor­dance with the con­sti­tu­tional prin­ci­ple that the state re­spects and pro­tects hu­man rights and the spirit of the Uni­ver­sal Dec­la­ra­tion of Hu­man Rights and other re­lated in­ter­na­tional hu­man rights con­ven­tions, and in com­bi­na­tion with the im­ple­men­ta­tion of the Out­line of the Thir­teenth Five-Year Plan for Na­tional Eco­nomic and So­cial De­vel­op­ment of the Peo­ple’s Repub­lic of China. The Ac­tion Plan de­fines the ob­jec­tives and tasks of re­spect­ing, pro­tect­ing and pro­mot­ing hu­man rights in the pe­riod from 2016 to 2020.

The guid­ing ide­ol­ogy for for­mu­lat­ing and im­ple­ment­ing the Ac­tion Plan is as fol­lows:

Up­hold­ing so­cial­ism with Chi­nese char­ac­ter­is­tics, fully im­ple­ment­ing the guid­ing prin­ci­ples of the 18th Na­tional Congress of the Com­mu­nist Party of China (CPC) and the third, fourth and fifth ple­nary ses­sions of the 18th CPC Cen­tral Com­mit­tee, fol­low­ing the guid­ance of Marx­ism-Lenin­ism, Mao Ze­dong Thought, Deng Xiaop­ing The­ory, the im­por­tant thought of the Three Rep­re­sents, and the Sci­en­tific Out­look on De­vel­op­ment, im­ple­ment­ing the spirit of a se­ries of im­por­tant speeches made by Gen­eral Sec­re­tary Xi Jin­ping, fol­low­ing the strate­gic ar­range­ment of build­ing China into a mod­er­ately pros­per­ous so­ci­ety in an all­round way, ad­vanc­ing re­form in an all­round way, com­pre­hen­sively pro­mot­ing law-based govern­ment, and run­ning the Party with strict dis­ci­pline, and stick­ing to the in­no­va­tive, co­or­di­nated, green, open and shar­ing de­vel­op­ment con­cept. The Chi­nese govern­ment com­bines hu­man rights with eco­nomic, po­lit­i­cal, cul­tural and so­cial progress, eco­log­i­cal pro­tec­tion and Party build­ing, ad­heres to the peo­ple-cen­tered de­vel­op­ment ap­proach, puts the pro­tec­tion of peo­ple’s rights to sub­sis­tence and de­vel­op­ment in the first place, takes the peo­ple’s well-be­ing and all-round de­vel­op­ment as both the start­ing point and ul­ti­mate goal of China’s hu­man rights work, safe­guards so­cial fair­ness and jus­tice, and bet­ter guar­an­tees the var­i­ous rights and in­ter­ests of the en­tire pop­u­la­tion in the great cause of re­al­iz­ing the Chi­nese Dream of re­ju­ve­na­tion of the Chi­nese na­tion.

The ba­sic prin­ci­ples for for­mu­lat­ing and im­ple­ment­ing the Ac­tion Plan are as fol­lows:

Push­ing for­ward the work in ac­cor­dance with the lawand bring­ing China’s hu­man rights work un­der the rule of law; push­ing for­ward the work in a co­or­di­nated way, and pro­mot­ing the com­pre­hen­sive and co­or­di­nated de­vel­op­ment of the peo­ple’s var­i­ous rights and in­ter­ests; push­ing for­ward the work in a prag­matic way, and in­te­grat­ing uni­ver­sal prin­ci­ples on hu­man rights with China’s re­al­i­ties; push­ing for­ward the work in a bal­anced way and mak­ing sure that all peo­ple en­joy equal hu­man rights; push­ing for­ward the work with joint ef­forts, with the govern­ment, en­ter­prises, pub­lic in­sti­tu­tions and so­cial or­ga­ni­za­tions work­ing to­gether to pro­mote hu­man rights.

In ac­cor­dance with the new re­quire­ment of build­ing a mod­er­ately pros­per­ous so­ci­ety in an all-round way, the ob­jec­tives of the im­ple­men­ta­tion of the Ac­tion Plan are as fol­lows:

• Com­pre­hen­sively safe­guard­ing ci­ti­zens’ eco­nomic, so­cial and cul­tural rights. The Chi­nese govern­ment will im­prove the peo­ple’s stan­dard of liv­ing and qual­ity of life; upgrade the pub­lic ser­vice sys­tem and en­sure more peo­ple have equal ac­cess to such ser­vices; spare no ef­fort in poverty al­le­vi­a­tion to lift the en­tire pop­u­la­tion who live un­der the cur­rent poverty line out of poverty; pro­tect in­tel­lec­tual prop­erty rights; im­prove the over­all eco­log­i­cal en­vi­ron­ment; make ef­forts to give peo­ple equal op­por­tu­ni­ties in de­vel­op­ment, en­sure that all peo­ple share the ben­e­fits of the na­tion’s de­vel­op­ment more equally, and in­crease the peo­ple’s sense of sat­is­fac­tion in cre­at­ing and shar­ing ben­e­fits.

• Pro­tect­ing ci­ti­zens’ civil and po­lit­i­cal rights in ac­cor­dance with the law. China will en­force the lawin a strict, pro­ce­dure based man­ner, and pro­tect ci­ti­zens’ per­sonal rights and dig­nity; pro­mote ju­di­cial jus­tice and guar­an­tee lit­i­gants’ right to a fair trial; im­prove so­cial­ist democ­racy, clear and ex­pand chan­nels for ci­ti­zens’ par­tic­i­pa­tion in po­lit­i­cal af­fairs, and en­sure peo­ple’s rights to be in­formed, to par­tic­i­pate, to be heard and to over­see.

• Fully safe­guard­ing the rights and in­ter­ests of spe­cific groups. The Chi­nese govern­ment will pro­mote the de­vel­op­ment of eth­nic mi­nori­ties and re­gions in­hab­ited by eth­nic mi­nori­ties; en­deavor to elim­i­nate gen­der dis­crim­i­na­tion; strengthen the pro­tec­tion of rights and in­ter­ests of mi­nors; re­spond ac­tively to the ag­ing of the pop­u­la­tion; im­prove the ser­vice sys­tem to sup­port and help peo­ple with dis­abil­i­ties.

• Con­duct­ing ex­ten­sive ed­u­ca­tion in hu­man rights. China will com­bine hu­man rights ed­u­ca­tion with na­tional ed­u­ca­tion and na­tion­wide ed­u­ca­tion in spread­ing knowl­edge of the law; pub­li­cize the im­por­tance of hu­man rights as rep­re­sented in the core so­cial­ist val­ues, and fos­ter a cul­ture fea­tur­ing respect for hu­man rights.

• Ac­tively par­tic­i­pat­ing in in­ter­na­tional hu­man rights work. China will ful­fill its obli­ga­tions to in­ter­na­tional hu­man rights con­ven­tions, get ac­tively in­volved in the work of the Unit­edN ations hu­man rights mech­a­nism; con­duct ex­ten­sive hu­man rights di­a­logues, ex­changes and co­op­er­a­tion, and pro­vide tech­ni­cal aid re­lated to hu­man rights to those de­vel­op­ing coun­tries that need it.

Com­piled un­der the lead­er­ship of the State Coun­cil In­for­ma­tion Of­fice and the Min­istry of For­eign Af­fairs, and re­viewed and ap­proved by the joint meet­ing for the Na­tional Hu­man Rights Ac­tion Plan, the Na­tional Hu­man Rights Ac­tion Plan of China (2016-2020) is hereby re­leased by the State Coun­cil In­for­ma­tion Of­fice.

I. Eco­nomic, So­cial and Cul­tural Rights

The Chi­nese govern­ment is de­ter­mined to press for­ward with pre­ci­sion poverty-re­duc­tion and poverty-erad­i­ca­tion cam­paigns, im­prove the pub­lic ser­vice sys­tem, steadily en­hance the level of equal ac­cess to ba­sic pub­lic ser­vices, and pro­tect ci­ti­zens’ eco­nomic, so­cial and cul­tural rights. (1) Right to work More proac­tive em­ploy­ment poli­cies shall be im­ple­mented, a sys­tem of life­long vo­ca­tional skills train­ing shall be pro­moted for work­ers, and a wage and ben­e­fits sys­tem shall be fur­ther im­proved, so shall a longterm safety pro­duc­tion mech­a­nism. Pre­ven­tion and treat­ment of oc­cu­pa­tional diseases shall be re­in­forced.

• En­sur­ing a fuller rate of em­ploy­ment and qual­ity em­ploy­ment. Pro­grams of em­ploy­ment pro­mo­tion and en­trepreneur­ship shall be in­tro­duced for col­lege grad­u­ates, and sur­plus ru­ral la­bor shall be en­cour­aged to seek em­ploy­ment in other ar­eas, and mi­grant work­ers shall get help in start­ing busi­nesses back in their home vil­lages. Peo­ple with dif­fi­cul­ties in find­ing jobs shall be registered so that the govern­ment can keep track of their em­ploy­ment sit­u­a­tion and give them help ac­cord­ing to de­fined cat­e­gories, with par­tic­u­lar attention be­ing paid to fam­i­lies with no one hold­ing a job. Coun­ties and town­ships in poverty-stricken ar­eas shall be given sup­port in build­ing em­ploy­ment and so­cial se­cu­rity ser­vices plat­forms. It is planned for a min­i­mum of 50 mil­lion new jobs to be cre­ated in ur­ban ar­eas.

• Pur­su­ing a life­long vo­ca­tional skills train­ing sys­tem for work­ers. Free vo­ca­tional train­ing shall be of­fered to young peo­ple from needy fam­i­lies, peo­ple with ju­nior or se­nior mid­dle-school ed­u­ca­tion, mi­grant work­ers, peo­ple hav­ing lost their jobs, work­ers with re­as­signed jobs, ex-ser­vi­cepeo­ple and peo­ple with dis­abil­i­ties. By 2020, it is ex­pected that 40 mil­lion mi­grant work­ers shall have re­ceived such train­ing, and the goal is to equip ev­ery worker with rel­e­vant oc­cu­pa­tional skills.

• Fur­ther im­prov­ing the wage and ben­e­fits sys­tem. Ef­forts will be made to im­prove the wage-set­ting mech­a­nism, the nor­mal wage in­crease mech­a­nism and pay­ment guar­an­tee mech­a­nism, and the min­i­mum wage ad­just­ment mech­a­nism. The col­lec­tive wage ne­go­ti­a­tion mech­a­nism shall be con­tin­u­ously im­ple­mented for en­ter­prises; a salary sys­tem shall be im­proved for highly skilled pro­fes­sion­als, the salaries of skilled work­ers be in­creased, and the paid va­ca­tion sys­tem be im­ple­mented.

• Im­prov­ing the la­bor se­cu­rity su­per­vi­sion and lawen­force­ment sys­tem and la­bor dis­pute set­tle­ment mech­a­nism. Em­ploy­ment dis­crim­i­na­tion of any form shall be strictly pro­hib­ited. Mea­sures will be taken to ad­dress ar­rears of wage pay­ment for mi­grant work­ers, reg­u­late lay­offs by busi­nesses, guar­an­tee the rights and in­ter­ests of work­ers in­for­mally em­ployed, strictly reg­u­lar­ize the ap­pli­ca­tion by en­ter­prises of the spe­cial work­ing-hour sys­tem, and strengthen su­per­vi­sion over la­bor dis­patch pur­suant to the law.

• Strength­en­ing safety in pro­duc­tion. By 2020 the death toll caused by in­dus­trial ac­ci­dents of var­i­ous types shall fall by 10 per­cent cu­mu­la­tively, and the death rate from in­dus­trial ac­ci­dents per RMB100 mil­lion of GDP shall drop by 30 per­cent.

• Strength­en­ing the pre­ven­tion and treat­ment of oc­cu­pa­tional diseases. In in­dus­tries with high risks of oc­cu­pa­tional diseases, 90 per­cent and above of rel­e­vant work­ers shall re­ceive spe­cial health check­ups, and 95 per­cent and above of per­sons in charge of busi­nesses and oc­cu­pa­tional health man­age­rial staff shall re­ceive the re­quired train­ing. (2) Right to ba­sic liv­ing stan­dards Full ef­forts shall be made to re­duce poverty, and en­sure ba­sic hous­ing, clean water, food se­cu­rity, and con­ve­nient trans­porta­tion.

• En­sur­ing the in­crease of ru­ral and ur­ban res­i­dents’ in­come in step with eco­nomic growth. By 2020 China’s GDP and the per-capita in­come of ur­ban and ru­ral res­i­dents shall both dou­ble that of 2010. Ef­forts shall be made to in­crease the in­come of low-in­come earn­ers, and en­large the ranks of mid­dle-in­come earn­ers.

• Im­ple­ment­ing the De­ci­sion of the CPC Cen­tral Com­mit­tee and the State Coun­cil on Erad­i­cat­ing Poverty in China, and im­ple­ment­ing the strat­egy of pre­ci­sion pover­tyre­duc­tion and poverty-erad­i­ca­tion. By 2020 some 30 mil­lion peo­ple shall be lifted out of poverty by way of de­vel­op­ing spe­cialty in­dus­tries, 10 mil­lion by way of trans­fer em­ploy­ment, 10 mil­lion by re­lo­ca­tion to other ar­eas, and the re­main­ing 20 mil­lion, who have par­tially or com­pletely lost the abil­ity to work, shall be cov­ered by so­cial se­cu­rity. In this way the whole of the im­pov­er­ished ru­ral pop­u­la­tion ac­cord­ing to the cur­rent stan­dards shall be lifted out of poverty and no county will be called a “poverty county” by then.

• En­sur­ing hous­ing se­cu­rity. A to­tal of 20 mil­lion units of hous­ing in run­down ur­ban ar­eas shall be re­built, sup­port strength­ened to poor ar­eas, and hold­ers of res­i­dence per­mits en­sured equal ba­sic hous­ing rights with lo­cally registered res­i­dents. Ef­forts shall be made to press for­ward with ren­o­va­tion of di­lap­i­dated hous­ing in ru­ral ar­eas, carry out anti-earth­quake re­in­force­ment projects for ru­ral hous­ing, and ba­si­cally com­plete the ren­o­va­tion of registered di­lap­i­dated hous­ing.

• En­sur­ing ac­cess to safe water. A to­tal of 27 bil­lion cum of water sup­ply ca­pac­ity will be added na­tion­wide on the cur­rent ba­sis, and all ur­ban water-sup­ply sources shall meet the re­quired stan­dards. Ef­forts shall be made to im­prove drink­ing water se­cu­rity in ru­ral ar­eas, where 80 per­cent of the pop­u­la­tion shall have ac­cess to tap water, and 85 per­cent to cen­tral­ized water sup­ply.

• En­sur­ing food safety. The Food Safety Law­shall be strictly en­forced, and su­per­vi­sory or­gans shall be held re­spon­si­ble for food safety in ar­eas un­der their re­spec­tive ju­ris­dic­tion. Food safety su­per­vi­sion shall be strength­ened on im­ported food­stuffs, and through the build­ing of a pro­fes­sional team of food-safety in­spec­tors, the su­per­vi­sion shall be made more ef­fec­tive. The sys­tem of food-safety credit shall be im­proved, so shall the mech­a­nisms of pro­tec­tion of con­sumers’ rights and in­ter­ests.

• Im­prov­ing the trans­porta­tion network. A network of na­tional trunk ex­press­ways shall be ba­si­cally put in place. Where con­di­tions per­mit, county seats shall have ac­cess to high­ways of Grade II and above, and town­ships and ad­min­is­tra­tive vil­lages have tar­mac or ce­ment roads and com­plete ac­cess to bus ser­vices. (3) Right to so­cial se­cu­rity The so­cial in­sur­ance sys­tem shall be im­proved, es­tab­lish­ment of a so­cial re­lief sys­tem cov­er­ing ur­ban and ru­ral ar­eas shall be pro­moted, and sup­port shall be given to the de­vel­op­ment of so­cial wel­fare and char­ity un­der­tak­ings.

• Im­ple­ment­ing full cov­er­age of so­cial in­sur­ance, and steadily rais­ing the level of so­cial se­cu­rity pool­ing. A more con­ve­nient so­cial in­sur­ance trans­fer and re­newal mech­a­nism shall be es­tab­lished, and the sys­tem of so­cial se­cu­rity card shall be im­ple­mented to en­sure that 90 per­cent of the pop­u­la­tion en­joys so­cial se­cu­rity cov­er­age.

• Im­prov­ing the ba­sic old-age in­sur­ance sys­tem that com­bines so­cial pool­ing and per­sonal ac­counts for ur­ban work­ers and en­deav­or­ing to ma­te­ri­al­ize na­tion­wide pool­ing for ba­sic old-age pen­sions for ur­ban work­ers, and in­tro­duc­ing tax-de­ferred re­tire­ment in­sur­ance. By 2020 some 95 per­cent of el­i­gi­ble ur­ban and ru­ral res­i­dents shall be cov­ered by the ba­sic old-age in­sur­ance.

• Im­prov­ing the med­i­cal in­sur­ance sys­tem. The cov­er­age of med­i­cal in­sur­ance in ur­ban and ru­ral ar­eas shall be sta­bi­lized at above 95 per­cent. A critical ill­ness in­sur­ance sys­tem shall be con­tin­u­ously car­ried out for ur­ban and ru­ral res­i­dents, and mech­a­nisms for steady and sus­tain­able fi­nanc­ing of the med­i­cal in­sur­ance and for ad­just­ing med­i­cal care re­im­burse­ment rates shall be im­proved. Steps shall be quick­ened to pro­mote the es­tab­lish­ment of a na­tion­wide network for ba­sic med­i­cal in­sur­ance and trans-re­gional set­tle­ment of med­i­cal in­sur­ance ac­counts, so in-pa­tient and out-pa­tient med­i­cal ex­penses can be set­tled in the place of treat­ment if the pa­tients meet the re­quire­ments for re­fer­ral, de­spite hav­ing lo­cal cov­er­age. The state shall in­te­grate ma­ter­nity in­sur­ance with ba­sic med­i­cal in­sur­ance.

• Fur­ther ex­pand­ing the cov­er­age of un­em­ploy­ment in­sur­ance, and en­sur­ing that el­i­gi­ble un­em­ployed per­sons re­ceive un­em­ploy­ment in­sur­ance ben­e­fits in full and in a timely man­ner, and that they have ac­cess to rel­e­vant re-em­ploy­ment ser­vices.

• Im­ple­ment­ing provin­cial-level uni­fied pool­ing of funds for work-re­lated in­jury in­sur­ance, guar­an­tee­ing that the in­sured re­ceive com­pen­sa­tion when ap­pli­ca­ble, for­mu­lat­ing reg­u­la­tions on the use and man­age­ment of funds for pre­ven­tion of workre­lated in­jury, and im­prov­ing the sys­tem of re­ha­bil­i­ta­tion ser­vices for work-re­lated in­juries. By 2020 work-re­lated in­jury in­sur­ance shall be ex­tended to cover all el­i­gi­ble work­ers as pre­scribed by the law.

• Press­ing for­ward in co­or­di­nated man­ner the build­ing of an ur­ban-ru­ral so­cial re­lief sys­tem. All el­i­gi­ble fam­i­lies shall be brought into the cov­er­age of the sub­sis­tence al­lowance sys­tem. The re­lief and sup­port sys­tem for peo­ple liv­ing in dire poverty shall be fur­ther im­proved and the level of re­lief and sup­port shall be raised. The sys­tem of tem­po­rary res­cue shall be com­pre­hen­sively im­ple­mented to pro­vide timely help to those in ur­gent needs. Build­ing of ser­vice fa­cil­i­ties for the pro­tec­tion of mi­nors shall be strength­ened, so shall or­gans for the re­lief and man­age­ment of va­grants and beg­gars, both at the grass­roots.

• Im­prov­ing the nat­u­ral dis­as­ter re­lief sys­tem, and ad­just­ing and im­prov­ing the re­lief poli­cies in the wake of nat­u­ral dis­as­ters. A na­tional nat­u­ral-dis­as­ter re­lief sup­plies re­serve sys­tem shall be launched.

• Im­prov­ing the so­cial wel­fare sys­tem with fo­cus on sup­port­ing the el­derly, dis­abled, chil­dren, and needy, and strength­en­ing the build­ing of wel­fare fa­cil­i­ties.

• En­act­ing the Char­ity Law, and sup­port­ing the de­vel­op­ment of char­i­ties.

• Im­ple­ment­ing the State Coun­cil’s re­form pro­gram of the house­hold regis­tra­tion sys­tem, and es­tab­lish­ing a uni­fied ur­ban-ru­ral house­hold regis­tra­tion sys­tem fea­tur­ing the re­moval of dif­fer­ence between agri­cul­tural and non-agri­cul­tural house­hold regis­tra­tion. The In­terim Reg­u­la­tions on Res­i­dence Per­mits shall be im­ple­mented, and the sys­tem of res­i­dence per­mit shall be ex­tended to cover all per­ma­nent ur­ban res­i­dents that have not yet had their house­hold regis­tra­tion. Equal de­vel­op­ment shall be pro­moted for ci­ti­zens, mak­ing them share the ben­e­fits of de­vel­op­ment equally and have equal ac­cess to so­cial se­cu­rity. (4) Right to prop­erty Es­tab­lish­ing and im­prov­ing a mod­ern prop­erty-right sys­tem fea­tur­ing clear own­er­ship, clearly de­fined rights and obli­ga­tions, rig­or­ous pro­tec­tion, and easy trans­fer, and press­ing for­ward with pro­tec­tion of peo­ple’s prop­erty rights in ac­cor­dance with the law.

• Forg­ing ahead with the com­pi­la­tion of the Civil Law-Code in an or­derly man­ner and im­prov­ing the sys­tem of prop­erty pro­tec­tion.

• Press­ing for­ward with the amend­ment of the Land Ad­min­is­tra­tion Law and en­act­ment of sup­port­ing laws and reg­u­la­tions. Proac­tive ex­plo­ration shall be con­ducted on such sys­tems as ex­pro­pri­a­tion of ru­ral col­lec­tively owned land, mar­ke­ti­za­tion of col­lec­tively owned ru­ral profit-ori­ented con­struc­tion land, man­age­ment of home­stead land, and the ad­just­ment and han­dling of real es­tate own­er­ship, and stud­ies on leg­is­la­tion be started at the right time.

• Com­plet­ing the con­fir­ma­tion and regis­tra­tion of ru­ral land con­tracted for pro­duc­tive use, home­steads, hous­ing and col­lec­tively owned con­struc­tion land. Re­form of the land ex­pro­pri­a­tion sys­tem shall be im­ple­mented con­tin­u­ously, the land-con­tract­ing re­la­tion­ship shall be made sta­ble in the ru­ral ar­eas, mea­sures for sep­a­rat­ing the rights of land own­er­ship, con­tract­ing and man­age­ment shall be im­proved, and or­derly trans­fer of land­man­age­ment right shall be in­tro­duced pur­suant to the law. Meth­ods for con­firm­ing mem­ber­ship of col­lec­tive eco­nomic or­ga­ni­za­tions shall be im­proved, and so shall the forms of ex­pres­sion of col­lec­tive eco­nomic as­sets own­er­ship. The pro­duc­tive as­sets of col­lec­tive eco­nomic or­ga­ni­za­tions shall be con­verted into shares for dis­tri­bu­tion among their mem­bers.

• Defin­ing the prop­erty right of en­ter­prises in ac­cor­dance with laws and reg­u­la­tions, and en­sur­ing en­ter­prises’ right of op­er­a­tion.

• Im­ple­ment­ing uni­fied sys­tem of regis­tra­tion for im­mov­ables.

• Tak­ing steps to quicken the en­act­ment of a nat­u­ral re­source as­sets own­er­ship sys­tem, de­cid­ing the own­ers of such as­sets, and in­no­vat­ing the forms of re­al­iz­ing the own­er­ship. The rights and in­ter­ests of the own­ers of nat­u­ral-re­source as­sets shall be pro­tected, and pro­ceeds from such as­sets shall be shared fairly. Fur­ther re­form shall be car­ried out of the min­ing right sys­tem, and a sys­tem and plat­form shall be es­tab­lished for trad­ing of eco­log­i­cal and en­vi­ron­men­tal rights and in­ter­ests.

• Im­ple­ment­ing a rig­or­ous in­tel­lec­tual prop­erty right (IPR) pro­tec­tion sys­tem. The IPR own­er­ship sys­tem shall be im­proved to en­cour­age in­no­va­tion, and an IPR trad­ing and ser­vices plat­form shall be built. (5) Right to health A ba­sic med­i­cal and health sys­tem cov­er­ing the en­tire na­tion shall be es­tab­lished and im­proved, and it is ex­pected that the av­er­age life ex­pectancy shall in­crease by one year by 2020.

• Pro­mot­ing equal ac­cess to ba­sic pub­lic health ser­vices. Im­prove­ments shall be en­deav­ored of the ba­sic pub­lic health ser­vice pro­grams and key pub­lic health ser­vice pro­grams, the qual­ity and ef­fi­ciency of health ser­vices shall be im­proved and equal ac­cess to them en­sured, and ad­just­ments made to the funds for ba­sic pub­lic health ser­vice pro­grams at the right time while con­tin­u­ing to give pref­er­ence to pri­mary level health ser­vices when it comes to the al­lo­ca­tion of fund­ing. Pri­vate cap­i­tal shall be en­cour­aged to go to health ser­vices, and equal treat­ment be of­fered to non-profit pri­vate hos­pi­tals as well as pub­lic hos­pi­tals.

• En­hanc­ing the ca­pac­ity of pri­mary level med­i­cal and health ser­vices. Fo­cus­ing on the cen­tral and western re­gions, each county shall be helped to run well at least one to two pub­lic hos­pi­tals (in­clud­ing hos­pi­tals of Tra­di­tional Chi­nese Medicine), and 95 per­cent of pri­mary-level med­i­cal and health in­sti­tu­tions shall be ex­pected to reach the re­quired stan­dards. En­deav­ors shall be made to de­velop a pri­mary-level med­i­cal care sphere that en­sures all pa­tients re­ceive help within 30 min­utes. A con­tin­gent of res­i­dent doc­tors shall be de­vel­oped and of­fered stan­dard­ized train­ing. Two gen­eral prac­ti­tion­ers shall be en­sured for ev­ery 10,000 per­sons and 2.5 prac­ti­tion­ers/as­sis­tants for ev­ery 1,000 per­sons.

• Strength­en­ing pre­ven­tion and con­trol of ma­jor ill­nesses. In­ten­si­fied ef­forts shall be made to ac­cel­er­ate the build­ing of na­tional- and provin­cial­level demon­stra­tion ar­eas for chronic dis­ease pre­ven­tion and con­trol, and the rate of pre­ma­ture deaths from ma­jor chronic diseases shall be re­duced by 10 per­cent. The in­ci­dence of TB shall be re­duced to 58/100,000; the in­fec­tion rates of HBV in all groups be re­duced; AIDS be con­trolled at a low-epi­demic level; schis­to­so­mi­a­sis be ba­si­cally elim­i­nated; and malaria and lep­rosy be elim­i­nated. China shall im­prove the di­ag­no­sis, re­port­ing and fol­low-up ser­vice of se­ri­ous men­tal dis­or­ders, and reg­is­ter 85 per­cent of per­sons with se­ri­ous men­tal dis­or­ders for health man­age­ment. Pri­mary attention shall be given to the pre­ven­tion and con­trol of en­demic diseases, im­prov­ing the ca­pa­bil­i­ties of pub­lic health emer­gency re­sponse and the pre­ven­tion and treat­ment of acute in­fec­tious dis­ease epi­demics. Health quar­an­tine ca­pac­ity of land bor­der cross­ings and sea ports shall be strength­ened to pre­vent the spread of ma­jor in­fec­tious diseases from out­side China. The sup­ply of medicines for the pre­ven­tion and con­trol of AIDS and some other diseases shall be in­creased free of charge, and med­i­cal re­lief shall be pro­vided for all those suf­fer­ing from se­vere or ma­jor ill­nesses.

•En­sur­ing En­sur­ing med­i­ca­tion med­i­ca­tion safety. safety. The The sys­tem• of sys­tem ba­sic medicines of ba­sic medicines shall be im­proved, shall be so shall im­proved, the mech­a­nism so shall the of medicine mech­a­nism sup­ply of and medicine sys­tem sup­ply of drug and in­spec­tion sys­tem and of drug test­ing, as in­spec­tion well as the and mon­i­tor­ing test­ing, of as ad­verse well as ef­fect­s­the of mon­i­tor­ing drugs. of ad­verse ef­fects of drugs.

•Im­ple­ment­ing Im­ple­ment­ing the Na­tional the Na­tional Fit­ness Fit­ness Pro­gram• made shall be ac­ces­si­ble made ac­ces­si­ble to ur­ban com­mu­ni­ties to ur­ban com­mu­ni­ties­ra­dius, within a 15- within minute a ra­dius,15-minute and per­ma­nent res­i­dents and per­ma­nent in ru­ral res­i­dents towns and in town ship­sru­ral shall towns be and en­sured town ships ac­cess to shall ba­sic be pub­lic en­sure d sports ac­cess ser­vices to ba­sic and pub­lic farm­ers sports in ru­ral ser­vices ad­min­is­tra­tive shall ru­ral be ad­min­is­tra­tive guar­an­teed ac­cess to vil­lages sports shall and fit­ness be guar­an­teed fa­cil­i­ties. By ac­cess 2020 someto 700 sports mil­lion and peo­ple fit­ness shall fa­cil­i­ties. take part By in 2020 phys­i­cal some ex­er­cises 700 mil­lion at least peo­ple once a week, shall and take 435 part mil­lion in phys­i­cal peo­ple ex­er­cises shall do it at on least a reg­u­lar once ba­sis,a with week, per-and capita 435 sports mil­lion or exercise peo­ple shall area be­ingdo 1.8 it on sq mo ra reg­u­lar more. ba­sis, with per-capita sports or exercise area be­ing 1.8 sq m SEEor more. PAGE 9

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