Progress in poverty re­duc­tion and hu­man rights

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CChina’s State hina’s Coun­cil State In­for­ma­tionCoun­cil In­for­ma­tionOf­fice on Mon­day is­sued Of­fice a on white Mon­day pa­per on is­sued China’sa whiteprogress in poverty pa­per re­duc­tionon China’s and progress hu­man in rights. poverty Here’s an ex­cerpt re­duc­tionof the and doc­u­ment.hu­man rights.For full text, Fol­low­ing­please go is to the http://ow.ly/1q2y305gLg9­full text of the doc­u­ment. Con­tents I. China’s Poverty Re­duc­tion Pro­gramHas Pro­moted the De­vel­op­ment of Hu­man Rights

II. En­sur­ing Im­pov­er­ished Peo­ple’s Right to Life

III. Safe­guard­ing Groups

IV. Im­prov­ing the De­vel­op­ment En­vi­ron­ment of Im­pov­er­ished Ar­eas V. Con­certed Ef­forts in Poverty Re­duc­tion VI. Poverty Re­duc­tion at a Cru­cial Stage the Rights of Spe­cific

Poverty erad­i­ca­tion is and al­ways has been a goal and a ba­sic right of all peo­ples in their pur­suit of a happy life. Over the years, based on the pre­vail­ing na­tional con­di­tions, the Com­mu­nist Party of China (CPC) and the Chi­nese gov­ern­ment have re­mained com­mit­ted to a de­vel­op­ment con­cept that puts peo­ple’s rights to sub­sis­tence and to de­vel­op­ment­first. Com­mit­ted to re­ducin­gan­de­lim­i­nat­ing poverty, China has en­deav­ored to guar­an­tee and im­prove peo­ple’s well-be­ing, and de­vel­oped a full range of so­cial un­der­tak­ings, so as to en­sure that the re­sults of de­vel­op­ment ben­e­fit all the peo­ple in a fairer way, and that all en­joy the rights to equal par­tic­i­pa­tion and equal de­vel­op­ment.

Since the 18th Na­tional Congress of the CPC in Novem­ber 2012, in the great cause of build­ing a mod­er­ately pros­per­ous so­ci­ety and re­al­iz­ing the Chi­nese Dream of great re­ju­ve­na­tion of the Chi­nese na­tion, the CPC Cen­tral Com­mit­tee led by Gen­eral Sec­re­tary Xi Jin­ping has re­mained com­mit­ted to a de­vel­op­ment con­cept that puts peo­ple first, and im­ple­mented the ba­sic strat­egy of tar­geted poverty al­le­vi­a­tion and elim­i­na­tion. China’s poverty re­duc­tion ac­tions, both solid and ef­fec­tive, have made a great con­tri­bu­tion to the cause of in­ter­na­tional poverty re­duc­tion, and achieved re­mark­able re­sults in world hu­man rights de­vel­op­ment.

I. China’s Poverty Re­duc­tion Pro­gram Has Pro­moted the De­vel­op­ment of Hu­man Rights

Poverty is so wide­spread that it has se­ri­ously hin­dered the ful­fill­ment and en­joy­ment of hu­man rights; re­duc­ing and elim­i­nat­ing poverty is there­fore a ma­jor el­e­ment of hu­man rights pro­tec­tion.

Over the re­cent decades, the Chi­nese gov­ern­ment has per­se­vered in its at­tempts to elim­i­nate poverty, im­prove peo­ple’s well-be­ing, and grad­u­ally re­al­ize com­mon prosperity. It has made con­tin­u­ous de­vel­op­men­to­ri­ented poverty-re­duc­tion ef­forts in ru­ral ar­eas to help those­whoare striv­ing to es­cape from poverty and im­prove the qual­ity of their lives.

China’s poverty re­duc­tion ac­tions are broad in ex­tent; they in­clude build­ing ru­ral and agri­cul­tural in­fra­struc­ture, help­ing in­crease the in­comes of im­pov­er­ished pop­u­la­tion, and pro­vid­ing public ser­vices such as so­cial se­cu­rity and health care, ed­u­ca­tion and cul­tural ser­vices. While com­pre­hen­sively safe­guard­ing the eco­nomic, so­cial and cul­tural rights of those liv­ing in poverty, these mea­sures have cre­ated con­di­tions for the pro­tec­tion of other hu­man rights.

Since the ini­ti­a­tion of re­form and open­ing up in the late 1970s, theChi­nese gov­ern­ment has worked with­out fail to al­le­vi­ate poverty - es­tab­lish­ing spe­cial poverty-re­lief in­sti­tu­tions, de­ter­min­ing tar­geted ar­eas and pop­u­la­tion, al­lo­cat­ing spe­cial­ized funds, for­mu­lat­ing poverty stan­dards and spe­cial pref­er­en­tial poli­cies adapted to China’s na­tional con­di­tions, and­steer­ing its pol­icy of poverty al­le­vi­a­tion through de­vel­op­ment.

The gov­ern­ment has car­ried out largescale de­vel­op­ment-ori­ented poverty erad­i­ca­tion pro­grams across the coun­try in a planned and or­ga­nized way, and im­ple­mented a series of medium- and long-term projects which in­clude the Seven-Year Pro­gram for Lift­ing 80 Mil­lion Peo­ple Out of Poverty (1994-2000), the Out­line for De­vel­op­ment-Ori­ented Poverty Al­le­vi­a­tion for China’s Ru­ral Ar­eas (2001-2010) and the Out­line for De­vel­op­ment-Ori­ented Poverty Al­le­vi­a­tion for China’s Ru­ral Ar­eas (20112020). Poverty re­duc­tion has be­come an im­por­tant com­po­nent of China’s na­tional strat­egy.

Since the 18th Na­tional Congress of CPC, the Cen­tral Com­mit­tee has given top pri­or­ity to de­vel­op­ment-ori­ented poverty re­duc­tion in its phi­los­o­phy of governance, deem­ing it vi­tal in its ef­forts to com­plete the process of build­ing a mod­er­ately pros­per­ous so­ci­ety in all re­spects by the cen­te­nary of the CPC (founded in 1921), which is known to be one of China’s “Two Cen­te­nary Goals.”

To this end, poverty re­duc­tion has been in­cor­po­rated into China’s over­all ap­proach to build­ing so­cial­ism with Chi­nese char­ac­ter­is­tics, that is, to pro­mote co­or­di­nated progress in eco­nomic, po­lit­i­cal, cul­tural, so­cial and eco­log­i­cal ar­eas and strat­egy of “Four Com­pre­hen­sives” (com­pre­hen­sively build a mod­er­ately pros­per­ous so­ci­ety, com­pre­hen­sively deepen re­form, com­pre­hen­sively im­ple­ment the rule of law, and com­pre­hen­sively strengthen Party dis­ci­pline).

At the Fifth Ple­nary Ses­sion of the 18th CPC Cen­tral Com­mit­tee held in Oc­to­ber 2015, the CPC fur­ther spec­i­fied the task of elim­i­nat­ing ru­ral poverty and re­ha­bil­i­tat­ing all im­pov­er­ished coun­ties by 2020. The sub­se­quent cen­tral work con­fer­ence on de­vel­op­ment-ori­ented poverty re­duc­tion, held the fol­low­ing Novem­ber, and the de­ci­sion on win­ning the fight against poverty is­sued by the CPC Cen­tral Com­mit­tee and the State Coun­cil in De­cem­ber, made com­pre­hen­sive plans on poverty elim­i­na­tion for the 13th Five-Year Plan pe­riod (2016-2020).

China’s 13th Five-Year Plan for Eco­nomic and So­cial De­vel­op­ment has codified the cen­tral lead­er­ship’s poverty-re­duc­tion de­ci­sion into the state will that is op­er­a­ble in prac­tice. For the first time, poverty re­duc­tion has been made an im­por­tant part of one of China’s five-year plans, and help­ing the poor pop­u­la­tion shake off poverty has been listed an oblig­a­tory in­dex in such a doc­u­ment. Also for the first time, the heads of Party com­mit­tees and gov­ern­ments of rel­e­vant prov­inces and au­ton­o­mous re­gions have signed to the Cen­tral Au­thor­i­ties let­ters of com­mit­ment on poverty elim­i­na­tion, and like­wise sim­i­lar doc­u­ments have been signed by lead­ers at lower lev­els.

Poverty re­duc­tion is the most telling ev­i­dence of China’s progress in hu­man rights. Over the past 30 years or more since the launch of re­form and open­ing up, more than 700 mil­lion Chi­nese peo­ple have been raised from poverty. The num­ber of ru­ral poor had fallen to 55.75 mil­lion by 2015, with the in­ci­dence of poverty drop­ping to 5.7 per­cent. No­table im­prove­ment has been made to in­fra­struc­ture and ba­sic public ser­vices, and poverty-re­duc­tion mech­a­nisms have been in­no­vated, thus con­tribut­ing to the guar­an­tee of the ba­sic rights of the im­pov­er­ished pop­u­la­tion. This has laid a solid foun­da­tion for achiev­ing a mod­er­ately pros­per­ous so­ci­ety in all re­spects.

The UN Mil­len­nium De­vel­op­ment Goals Re­port 2015 shows that the pro­por­tion of peo­ple liv­ing in ex­treme poverty in­China fell by half from 61 per­cent in 1990 to be­low 30 per­cent in 2002, and on down to 4.2 per­cent in 2014. The num­ber of cit­i­zens China has raised from poverty ac­counts for 70 per­cent of the world’s to­tal. With the most peo­ple lifted out of poverty, China has led other coun­tries to re­al­ize the UN Mil­len­nium De­vel­op­ment Goal and made an enor­mous con­tri­bu­tion to poverty re­duc­tion world­wide. Its en­deav­ors have been widely hailed by the in­ter­na­tional com­mu­nity and its achieve­ments will go down in his­tory. Such achieve­ments force­fully demon­strate the bril­liant lead­er­ship of the CPC and the ad­van­tages of so­cial­ism with Chi­nese char­ac­ter­is­tics.

While com­bat­ing poverty at home, China also ac­tively helps other de­vel­op­ing coun­tries to ad­dress their poverty prob­lems. Over more than six decades since the found­ing of thePeo­ple’s Repub­lic ofChina in 1949, China has pro­vided nearly RMB400 bil­lion to 166 coun­tries and in­ter­na­tional or­ga­ni­za­tions, sent more than 600,000 aid work­ers, given med­i­cal as­sis­tance to 69 coun­tries, and aided more than 120 de­vel­op­ing coun­tries in re­al­iz­ing the Mil­len­nium Goals. On seven oc­ca­sions China has un­con­di­tion­ally can­celed in­ter­est-free loans to heav­ily in­debted coun­tries and least de­vel­oped coun­tries.

After years of tri­als and ex­per­i­men­ta­tion, China has ac­cu­mu­lated a wealth of ex­pe­ri­ence in pro­mot­ing hu­man rights through de­vel­op­ment- ori­ented poverty re­duc­tion, and es­tab­lished a new model of de­vel­op­men­to­ri­ented poverty al­le­vi­a­tion with Chi­nese char­ac­ter­is­tics.

• Pro­ceed­ing from the pre­vail­ing na­tional con­di­tions and ex­ploit­ing its in­sti­tu­tional ad­van­tages. China is the world’s largest de­vel­op­ing coun­try with more than 1.3 bil­lion peo­ple. De­vel­op­ment is the para­mount task of the CPC in gov­ern­ing and re­ju­ve­nat­ing China, which is es­sen­tial to ad­dress­ing the coun­try’s ex­ist­ing prob­lems. By ex­ploit­ing its po­lit­i­cal and in­sti­tu­tional ad­van­tages, China has formed a trans-re­gional, trans- depart­men­tal, and trans-in­dus­trial poverty re­duc­tion process to which all so­cial sec­tors con­trib­ute through the mech­a­nism of “Party lead­er­ship, gov­ern­ment guid­ance and so­cial par­tic­i­pa­tion.”

• Ac­cel­er­at­ing eco­nomic de­vel­op­ment and pro­mot­ing poverty re­duc­tion. Tak­ing poverty re­duc­tion as a ma­jor el­e­ment of eco­nomic de­vel­op­ment, China pro­motes poverty re­duc­tion along­side eco­nomic growth, com­bines de­vel­op­ment-ori­ented poverty al­le­vi­a­tion and so­cio-eco­nomic de­vel­op­ment, treats poverty al­le­vi­a­tion through de­vel­op­ment as the main fo­cus of the eco­nomic and so­cial de­vel­op­ment plan, co­or­di­nates the de­vel­op­ment of poverty re­duc­tion and hu­man rights pro­tec­tion, and achieves ef­fec­tive in­ter­ac­tion be­tween plans for poverty re­duc­tion and elim­i­na­tion, na­tional eco­nomic and so­cial de­vel­op­ment, and na­tional hu­man rights ac­tion.

• Ad­her­ing to multi-form poverty re­duc­tion, and fo­cus­ing on ef­fect. De­vel­op­ment is the fun­da­men­tal ap­proach to poverty erad­i­ca­tion. China ad­dresses poverty re­duc­tion by en­hanc­ing the skills of the im­pov­er­ished pop­u­la­tion and im­prov­ing their ca­pac­ity for self-de­vel­op­ment, and acts to pre­vent the trans­fer of poverty across gen­er­a­tions. The gov­ern­ment adds pref­er­en­tial poli­cies to its gen­eral wel­fare pol­icy, de­vis­ing pref­er­en­tial poli­cies for the im­pov­er­ished pop­u­la­tion on the ba­sis of the gen­eral wel­fare pol­icy for the ru­ral ar­eas, agri­cul­ture and farm­ers. It takes tar­geted poverty re­duc­tion and elim­i­na­tion as the ba­sic strat­egy, with dif­fer­en­ti­ated and tar­geted mea­sures, and pro­vides aid and guar­an­tees for all those who qual­ify.

• Pri­or­i­tiz­ing so­cial fair­ness and jus­tice, and striv­ing to bring ben­e­fits and com­mon prosperity to all. Fo­cus­ing on en­sur­ing and im­prov­ing public well-be­ing, China en­cour­ages in­sti­tu­tional and or­ga­ni­za­tional in­no­va­tion, and pro­motes so­cial fair­ness and jus­tice. It is es­tab­lish­ing a so­cial fair­ness guar­an­tee sys­tem ap­ply­ing to rights, op­por­tu­ni­ties and rules, pro­tect­ing the peo­ple’s right to equal par­tic­i­pa­tion and equal de­vel­op­ment with the rule of law, and bring­ing the ben­e­fits of re­form and de­vel­op­ment as well as com­mon prosperity to the whole pop­u­la­tion.

II. En­sur­ing Im­pov­er­ished Peo­ple’s Right to Life

It is one of the ba­sic poli­cies of the Chi­nese gov­ern­ment to in­no­va­tively im­prove its meth­ods in re­duc­ing and erad­i­cat­ing poverty, and takes tar­geted mea­sures to that end. Re­cently, through data track­ing on the con­di­tions of the im­pov­er­ished pop­u­la­tion, the gov­ern­ment an­a­lyzes the causes of their prob­lems, and of­fer guid­ance on their de­vel­op­ment needs. Tar­geted mea­sures are im­ple­mented in terms of fund­ing, projects, and re­cip­i­ents. Ev­ery im­pov­er­ished house­hold is guar­an­teed help, ev­ery vil­lage has des­ig­nated of­fi­cials to carry out poverty erad­i­ca­tion mea­sures, and goals are met within the de­fined stan­dards. In the fight against poverty, China has en­hanced poverty erad­i­ca­tion ef­fects, ac­cel­er­ated the speed of poverty erad­i­ca­tion, and en­sured im­pov­er­ished peo­ple’s right to life.

Sup­port has been given to poverty erad­i­ca­tion through de­vel­op­ing in­dus­tries with lo­cal fea­tures. The state has is­sued a series of de­vel­op­ment plans and poli­cies re­gard­ing in­dus­tries with lo­cal fea­tures to pro­vide growth op­por­tu­ni­ties for im­pov­er­ished ar­eas. These in­clude the Guid­ing Opin­ions on Strength­en­ing Poverty Al­le­vi­a­tion Work in the Agri­cul­tural In­dus­try and Poverty Al­le­vi­a­tion Plan in the Forestry Sec­tor (20132020), which fo­cuses on de­vel­op­ing agri­cul­ture and an­i­mal hus­bandry with lo­cal fea­tures. Poverty Al­le­vi­a­tion Through De­vel­op­ment Plan of the Agri­cul­tural In­dus­try (2011-2020); Mea­sures for In­creas­ing the In­come of In­dus­tries with Lo­cal Fea­tures and De­vel­op­ment Plan for Eco­nomic Forests (2013-2020), which lay out a good plan for the de­vel­op­ment of agri­cul­ture, forestry, and an­i­mal hus­bandry in con­tigu­ous poverty-stricken ar­eas, with key ar­eas spec­i­fied; and Re­gional Lay­out of Agri­cul­tural Prod­ucts with Lo­cal Fea­tures (2013-2020), which cov­ers 96 agri­cul­tural prod­ucts with lo­cal char­ac­ter­is­tics in im­pov­er­ished ar­eas for uni­fied plan­ning, with in­creased in­vest­ment from var­i­ous sources. Dur­ing the Twelfth Five-Year Plan pe­riod (2011-2015), RMB122 bil­lion was spent on agri­cul­tural in­fra­struc­ture and spe­cial­ized funds, and RMB116 bil­lion on forestry in­fra­struc­ture and spe­cial­ized funds in con­tigu­ous poverty-stricken ar­eas. Driven by the in­dus­tries with lo­cal char­ac­ter­is­tics, poverty-stricken ar­eas are see­ing greater mo­men­tum in their de­vel­op­ment, with grow­ing in­comes for farm­ers.

Poverty al­le­vi­a­tion through re­set­tling im­pov­er­ished pop­u­la­tion has been steadily car­ried out. Since 2012 the state has al­lo­cated RMB40.4 bil­lion from the cen­tral gov­ern­ment to lever­age a to­tal in­vest­ment of RMB141.2 bil­lion of all kinds, re­set­tling 5.91 mil­lion im­pov­er­ished peo­ple. The cen­tral and pro­vin­cial cof­fers as well as lo­cal gov­ern­ments at var­i­ous lev­els have pro­vided RMB38 bil­lion for poverty re­duc­tion, re­set­tled 5.8 mil­lion poor peo­ple. These con­certed ef­forts have ef­fec­tively brought more de­vel­op­ment op­por­tu­ni­ties to pover­tys­tricken ar­eas. Through sci­en­tific plan­ning and care­ful site se­lec­tion, in­fra­struc­ture and com­mu­nity ser­vices have been strength­ened in re­set­tle­ment ar­eas, sig­nif­i­cantly im­prov­ing the liv­ing and work­ing con­di­tions of the re­lo­cated pop­u­la­tion. By de­vel­op­ing farm pro­duc­tion and an­i­mal farm­ing, and guid­ing work­ers to travel to seek em­ploy­ment else­where, China has seen in­creases in the in­come of re­set­tled farm­ers and mi­grant work­ers, with faster progress in erad­i­cat­ing poverty and achiev­ing prosperity. In 2016 the Chi­nese gov­ern­ment has ini­ti­ated a new round of re­set­tle­ment pro­grams for its im­pov­er­ished pop­u­la­tion, with in­creased funds from cen­tral gov­ern­ment, and fur­ther raised sub­sidy stan­dards. It has in­tro­duced pol­icy-based funds for de­vel­op­ment, ex­panded fund­ing sources, and strength­ened fol­low-up sup­port to re­lo­cated peo­ple, en­sur­ing that each re­set­tled house­hold is lifted out of poverty.

Poverty erad­i­ca­tion through eco­log­i­cal con­ser­va­tion is mak­ing progress. In pover­tys­trick­enar­eas, the state pro­motes the pro­tec­tion of nat­u­ral for­est re­sources, re­turn­ing farm­lands to forests and graz­ing land to grass­lands, con­trol­ling the sources of sand­storms af­fect­ing the Bei­jing- Tian­jin area, con­trol­ling stony de­ser­ti­fi­ca­tion, and pro­tect­ing bi­o­log­i­cal diver­sity. All these ef­forts have con­trib­uted to pro­tect­ing the ecol­ogy in im­pov­er­ished ar­eas and restor­ing the en­vi­ron­ment, to im­prov­ing lo­cal ecol­ogy, to pro­vid­ing more op­por­tu­ni­ties for the im­pov­er­ished pop­u­la­tion, to boost­ing the in­dus­tries with lo­cal char­ac­ter­is­tics, and to in­creas­ing the em­ploy­ment and in­come of lo­cal res­i­dents and pro­tect­ing the re­sources re­quired for their de­vel­op­ment. China has es­tab­lished a mech­a­nism for eco­log­i­cal com­pen­sa­tion, and is ac­tively pro­mot­ing the pro­gramin poverty-stricken ar­eas. It has fur­ther raised the stan­dards of com­pen­sat­ing the eco­log­i­cal ben­e­fits of forests, im­prov­ing the re­ward mech­a­nism for grass­land eco­log­i­cal pro­tec­tion, and pro­mot­ing the mod­ern­iza­tion of an­i­mal hus­bandry in poverty-stricken ar­eas. Mea­sures have been taken to ex­pand the in­come chan­nels of the im­pov­er­ished pop­u­la­tion, and to en­cour­age vol­un­tary work by those liv­ing in the key projects ar­eas, thereby bring­ing them ben­e­fits. China strives to im­prove liv­ing con­di­tions of im­pov­er­ished pop­u­la­tion. Ef­forts have been madetoim­provethe eco­log­i­calen­vi­ron­ment of im­pov­er­ished coun­ties, and to pro­mote the de­vel­op­ment of woody grain and oil, spe­cialty fruits, tim­ber and bam­boo forests, for­est-de­pen­dent in­dus­tries, her­biv­o­rous an­i­mal hus­bandry, and eco-tourism, ef­fec­tively im­prov­ing the lives of the im­pov­er­ished pop­u­la­tion. In­creased ef­forts have been made to al­le­vi­ate poverty through ed­u­ca­tion. Dur­ing the Twelfth Five-Year Plan pe­riod, China pri­or­i­tized ed­u­ca­tion in its ef­fort to erad­i­cate poverty. The mea­sures in­cluded: con­tin­u­ing to pro­mote the bal­anced de­vel­op­ment of com­pul­sory ed­u­ca­tion, clos­ing the gap in ed­u­ca­tion be­tween ur­ban and ru­ral ar­eas, im­prov­ing ed­u­ca­tion in­fra­struc­ture in im­pov­er­ished ar­eas, im­ple­ment­ing the Ac­tion Plan for Three-Year Preschool Ed­u­ca­tion, of­fer­ing cost-of-liv­ing sub­si­dies to teach­ers in ru­ral ar­eas, and en­rolling stu­dents from poverty-stricken ar­eas, ex­empt­ing their tuition fees at sec­ondary vo­ca­tional schools, and al­lot­ting liv­ing sub­si­dies to the stu­dents. All this was tar­geted at en­sur­ing im­pov­er­ished peo­ple’s ac­cess to ed­u­ca­tion.

In 2012-2015, the cen­tral gov­ern­ment in­jected RMB83.1 bil­lion into poor com­pul­sory ed­u­ca­tion schools, and RMB14 bil­lion to build 244,000 dor­mi­tory units for 300,000 teach­ers in re­mote ru­ral ar­eas. The state car­ried out a three-year ac­tion plan to pro­mote preschool ed­u­ca­tion, in­creas­ing the na­tion’s three-year preschool gross en­roll­ment rate from 62.3 per­cent in 2011 to 75 per­cent in 2015. In cen­tral and west­ern China, the num­ber of chil­dren en­rolled in kinder­gartens rose from 21.53 mil­lion in 2011 to 27.89 mil­lion in 2015, up 30 per­cent. Fol­low­ing the re­lease of the Notice on Uni­fy­ing the Es­tab­lish­ment of the Fac­ulty and Staff of El­e­men­tary and Sec­ondary Schools in Ur­ban and Ru­ral Ar­eas, is­sued in Novem­ber 2014, the teach­ing and ad­min­is­tra­tive staff of el­e­men­tary and sec­ondary schools in vil­lages, coun­ties, and towns be­gan to en­joy the same stan­dards of es­tab­lish­ment as ur­ban schools, with fa­vor­able treat­ment for those in re­mote poor ru­ral ar­eas. In 2013-2015, the cen­tral gov­ern­ment al­lot­ted RMB4.4 bil­lion for cost-of-liv­ing sub­si­dies for ru­ral teach­ers in con­tigu­ous poverty-stricken ar­eas, ben­e­fit­ing over one mil­lion teach­ers in 600 coun­ties. In 2012-2015, the cen­tral gov­ern­ment pro­vided RMB41.7 bil­lion in tuition sub­si­dies to sec­ondary vo­ca­tional schools, and granted ex­emp­tions from tuition fees to ru­ral stu­dents (in­clud­ing those from coun­ties and towns) and ur­ban stu­dents with agri­cul­ture-re­lated ma­jors or with fi­nan­cial dif­fi­cul­ties (ex­cept those ma­jor­ing in arts) at full­time public sec­ondary vo­ca­tional schools. Stu­dents who were el­i­gi­ble for tu­itions ex­emp­tion at pri­vate sec­ondary vo­ca­tional schools cer­ti­fied by ad­min­is­tra­tive or­gans were guar­an­teed the same tuition ex­emp­tions as stu­dents of the same ma­jor at lo­cal public sec­ondary vo­ca­tional schools. The state of­fers grants to first- and sec­ond-year stu­dents with agri­cul­ture- re­lated ma­jors or with fi­nan­cial dif­fi­cul­ties at full-time schools, and the stan­dard has been raised from RMB1,500 per stu­dent per year in 20122014 to RMB2,000 since the spring se­mes­ter of 2015, cov­er­ing 40 per­cent of stu­dents. A di­rec­tional en­roll­ment pro­gram was car­ried out in poverty-stricken ar­eas, en­rolling 183,000 stu­dents in 832 im­pov­er­ished coun­ties form 2012 to 2015. In 2013-2015, the an­nual growth rate of ru­ral stu­dents from poor ar­eas en­rolled in key uni­ver­si­ties was kept above 10 per­cent.

Poverty al­le­vi­a­tion through med­i­cal se­cu­rity has been im­ple­mented. The Chi­nese gov­ern­ment con­tin­ues to strengthen its poverty al­le­vi­a­tion ef­fort through pro­mot­ing med­i­cal se­cu­rity, re­duc­ing the med­i­cal costs of the im­pov­er­ished pop­u­la­tion in ru­ral ar­eas, strength­en­ing med­i­cal and health ser­vices in poverty-stricken ar­eas, and im­prov­ing the health of peo­ple in these ar­eas, so that they are not re­duced to or re­turned to poverty be­cause of ill­ness. All this has en­sured the right to health. Im­prove­ment has been made in the New Ru­ral Co­op­er­a­tive Med­i­cal Sys­tem (NRCMS), which cov­ers over 97 per­cent of ru­ral res­i­dents.

In 2016, the NRCMS of­fers a per capita sub­sidy of RMB420, and re­im­burse­ment ra­tios of out­pa­tient and in­pa­tient costs reached 50 per­cent and 75 per­cent. Se­ri­ous ill­ness in­sur­ance for ur­ban and ru­ral res­i­dents has been fully im­ple­mented, cov­er­ing more than one bil­lion res­i­dents with a re­im­burse­ment ra­tio of no lower than 50 per­cent. A med­i­cal emer­gency re­lief sys­tem has been es­tab­lished to help peo­ple suf­fer­ing from se­ri­ous ill­nesses, and univer­sal med­i­cal care has been fur­ther im­proved to cover ma­jor ill­nesses, sig­nif­i­cantly re­duc­ing the med­i­cal costs of ru­ral res­i­dents. Since 2012, the cen­tral gov­ern­ment has al­lo­cated RMB79.4 bil­lion to sup­port in­fra­struc­ture con­struc­tion at 110,000 health ser­vice units in poverty-stricken ar­eas. Pro­grams have been car­ried out to of­fer free med­i­cal ed­u­ca­tion to ru­ral stu­dents who will re­turn to serve in their ar­eas, to send gen­eral prac­ti­tion­ers to clin­ics in ru­ral ar­eas, to pair up hos­pi­tals in ur­ban and ru­ral ar­eas to en­able med­i­cal as­sis­tance, and to or­ga­nize statelevel hos­pi­tals to help and sup­port countylevel hos­pi­tals in poverty-stricken ar­eas. In 2015, 45 items in the 12 cat­e­gories of ba­sic public health ser­vices were im­ple­mented, with per capita sub­sidy ris­ing from RMB15 in 2011 to RMB40. Pro­grams have been car­ried out to en­sure that women in ru­ral ar­eas have ac­cess to folic acid sup­ple­ments in or­der to pre­vent neu­ral tube de­fects, and to im­prove child nu­tri­tion in poverty-stricken ar­eas, in an ef­fort to strengthen disease pre­ven­tion and con­trol and pro­mote good health. Thanks to these ef­forts the health of the im­pov­er­ished pop­u­la­tion has grad­u­ally im­proved. In 2016, the Na­tional Health and Fam­ily Plan­ning Com­mis­sion, the State Coun­cil Lead­ing Group of Poverty Al­le­vi­a­tion and De­vel­op­ment, and 13 other de­part­ments jointly launched a poverty al­le­vi­a­tion project through health pro­mo­tion, so as to en­sure that the im­pov­er­ished ru­ral pop­u­la­tion will wel­come the ar­rival of a mod­er­ately pros­per­ous so­ci­ety with the rest of the na­tion.

Pro­grams Pro­grams are are be­ing­be­ing im­ple­mente­d­im­ple­mented to to lift lift all all ru­ral ru­ral res­i­dents res­i­dents out outof poverty.of poverty.The The state state­has re­leased­has re­leaseda plan toa plan align to the align­sub­sis­tence the sub­sis­tence al­lowances al­lowances sys­tem sys­temwith de­vel­op­ment-ori­ented with de­vel­op­men­to­ri­ented poverty poverty al­le­vi­a­tion al­le­vi­a­tion poli­cies poli­ciesin ru­ralin ar­eas.ru­ral ar­eas. Fo­cus­ing Fo­cusin­gon the on goals the of goals pover­tyof erad­i­ca­tion,poverty erad­i­ca­tion,all lo­cal­i­ties all lo­cal­i­tiesare im­provin­gare im­prov­ingth­eir poli­cies, their mea­sures, poli­cies, mea­sures,and work­ing and mech­a­nismswork­ing mech­a­nism­sto of­fer sub­sis­tence to of­fer sub­sis­tence al­lowances al­lowancesto the mostto the im­pov­er­ished most im­pov­er­ished ru­ral ru­ral res­i­dents, res­i­dents, striv­ing striv­ing to to in­crease in­crease the the stan­dard­s­stan­dards ofof so­cial­so­cial se­cu­rity se­cu­rity for for thethe im­pov­er­ished im­pov­er­ished pop­u­la­tion. pop­u­la­tion. Reg­is­tered Reg­is­tered ru­ral ru­ral fam­i­lies fam­i­lies el­i­gi­ble el­i­gi­ble for for sub­sis­tence sub­sis­tence al­lowances al­lowances are are in­cluded in­cluded in in the the sub­sis­tence­sub­sis­tence al­lowance al­lowance sys­tem sys­tem in in ac­cor­dance ac­cor­dance with with es­tab­lished es­tab­lished pro­ce­dures, pro­ce­dures, and and they they re­ceive re­ceive the the al­lowance­sal­lowances based based on on the the gap gap be­tween be­tween their their per per cap­i­ta­capita house­hold­house­hold in­come in­come and and lo­cal lo­cal sub­sis­tence­sub­sis­tence al­lowance al­lowance stan­dards. stan­dards. Ru­ral Ru­ral fam­i­lies­fam­i­lies cov­ered cov­ered by by the the sub­sis­tence sub­sis­tence al­lowance­sal­lowances and and el­i­gi­ble el­i­gi­ble for for poverty poverty re­duc­tionre­duc­tion pro­gram­spro­grams are are reg­is­tered reg­is­tered in in ac­cor­danceac­cor­dance with with es­tab­lishedestab­lished pro­ce­dures,pro­ce­dures, an­dand re­ceivere­ceive help help and and sup­port sup­port based based on on the the dif­fer­ent­d­if­fer­ent causes causes of of their their poverty.poverty. Fam­i­lies which were lifted out of poverty but have re­turned to poverty Fam­i­liesare in­cluded which in were tem­po­rarylifted out re­lief, of poverty med­i­cal but re­lief, have ru­ral re­turned sub­sis­tenceto povertyal­lowances are in­cludedand oth­erin tem­po­raryso­cial re­lief re­lief, sys­tems, med­i­cal and re­lief,are reg­is­tere­dru­ral sub­sis­tence­for help and al­lowances­sup­port. andIn 2015, other the so­cial num­ber re­liefof re­cip­i­ents sys­tems,of ru­ral and are sub­sis­tence reg­is­tered al­lowances­for help was and 49.04 sup­port.mil­lion, In 2015, with the the num­ber stan­dardof re­cip­i­entsraised from of ru­ral RMB143 sub­sis­ten­ceper per­son al­lowances­per month wasin 2011 49.04to mil­lion, RMB265. with­Per cap­i­tathe stan­dard ex­pen­di­ture raised on from­sup­port­ing RMB143 ru­ralper per­son pop­u­la­tion­per in mon­thdire pover­tyin 2011 to in RMB265.nurs­ing homes and at their own home­sPer capita reached ex­pen­di­ture RMB6,026on sup­port­in­gand RMB4,490,ru­ral pop­u­la­tion­grow­ing by in 48.4 dire per­cent poverty and in nurs­ing49.3 per­cent homes com­paredand at their with own the homes2012 reachedlevels. RMB6,026 and RMB4,490, grow­ing by 48.4 per­cent and 49.3 per­cent com­pared with the 2012 lev­els.

HUANG XIAOBANG / XIN­HUA

Chil­dren from poor fam­i­lies in the Guangxi Zhuang au­ton­o­mous re­gion can get 15 years of free ed­u­ca­tion.

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