is Professor at the School of Law and Political Science, Ocean University of China; Wang Lu is a research assistant at the Institute of Maritime Politics, Ocean University of China.
1 “The Astana Declaration of the Heads of State of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization,” June 9, 2017, http://eng.sectsco.org/load/297146.
2 Regarding the status of the Caspian Sea as a “lake” or a “sea,” there is currently no conclusion. Russia, Iran, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and other coastal countries of the Caspian Sea mostly regard it as a sea, but the geography community generally believes that it is the largest lake in the world. The Caspian Sea has an ecosystem similar to that of the oceans, rich in oil and gas and biological resources, and has a well-developed shipping industry. In recent years, clashes on oil and gas and biological resources between coastal states have been aggravated, leading to an increasingly deteriorated ecological environment in the Caspian Sea. In addition, illegal cross-border drug trafficking in the Caspian Sea has also increased. 3 Landlocked countries have legitimate rights in the territorial seas and contiguous areas of coastal states, straits used for international navigation, archipelagic waters, exclusive economic zones, the continental shelf, and the high seas. For details, see Articles 17, 58, 78, 79, 125 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, http://www.un.org/depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/unclos_e.pdf.
4 Global ocean governance refers to entities, including sovereign state governments, international governmental and non-governmental organizations, multinational corporations and individuals, jointly solving global maritime issues in the context of globalization through binding international regimes and extensive consultation and cooperation, so as to achieve global harmony at sea and realize sustainable development and utilization of the ocean. See Cui Ye and Wang Qi, “Introducing Global Governance into the Ocean Areas: An Analysis on the Basic Issues of Global Ocean Governance and China’s Coping Strategies,” Pacific Journal, No.6, 2015, p.20.
5 Zhou Nan and Zhou Xin, “Developing the Criminal Justice Cooperation Mechanism of Countering Maritime Terrorism between China and Southeast Asian Nations”, Pacific Journal, No.3, 2018, p.93.
6 “The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation,” Shanghai Cooperation Organization Secretariat, http://chn. sectsco.org/about_sco.
7 “PM’S Address at SCO Summit,” Prime Minister of India, June 24, 2016, http://www.pmindia.gov.in/en/ news_updates/pms-address-at-sco-summit.
8 Yin Fou and Mei Shen, “China and Russia Sign MOU on Cooperation in Navigation Safety and Marine Environmental Protection,” Journal of Waterway and Harbor, No.5, 2013, p.375.
9 “Joint Communiqué of the 14th Meeting of the Foreign Ministers of the Russian Federation, the Republic of India and the People’s Republic of China,” April 19, 2016, http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/ zxxx_662805/t1356652.shtml.
10 Li Jinfeng, “The Shanghai Cooperation Organization Challenges and Opportunities of the SCO Enlargement,” Russian, East European & Central Asian Studies, No.6, 2015, p.38.
11 Li Jinfeng, Report on the Development of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (2017), Social Sciences Academic Press, 2017, p.25.