沙特能效工作现状及与我国合作

Energy of China - - CONTENTS -

符冠云,杨 晶

(国家发展和改革委员会能源研究所,北京 100038)

摘要:沙特在能源领域呈现出“土豪式”消费、粗放式生产与出口导向、高碳能源统治的特点。出于国家经济转型、财政开源与节流、做大做强能源产业和开展能源外交等方面考虑,沙特已认识到提高能效的重要意义。本文基于实地调研梳理了沙特能效工作进展状况,包括完善能效管理组织架构、开展能效对标、设定能效管理目标等内容,提出以我国在能效领域积累的成熟经验,对接沙特提高能效的迫切需求,开展中沙能效合作的前景广阔。建议重点在能效标准、节能监管制度、节能服务、先进产能与节能技术装备合作等4 个领域进行交流与合作,实现双赢。 关键词:沙特;能效;中沙合作中图分类号:F416 文献标识码:A 文章编号:1003-2355-(2017)10-0038-04 Doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1003-2355.2017.10.007

Abstract: The characteristics of energy production and consumption in Saudi Arabia could be summarized by luxurious consumption, extensive production, export-oriented and high-carbon energy dominated. With the considerations about accelerating economic transition, optimizing financial system, increasing competitiveness of energy industries and promoting energy diplomacy, energy efficiency has become an important issue of the government. Based on on-site survey, the progress and achievements on energy efficiency in Saudi Arabia have been tracked through 3 aspects: institutional capacity building, benchmarking and energy efficiency targets setting. The willingness

of promoting energy efficiency in Saudi matches the advantages in energy efficiency in China, great potentials of corporation could be expected in energy efficiency standards, governance framework, energy services and energy efficient production capacity.

Key words: Saudi Arabia; Energy Efficiency;the Sino-Saudi Corporation

1 沙特经济、能源生产与消费情况

沙特经济发展严重倚重石油产业,产业结构重型化和单一化特征明显。沙特是阿拉伯地区最大的经济体, 2015 年国内生产总值为 6722 亿美元(2010 年不变价,下同),人均 GDP 为 21313美元,按照 2010 年世界银行标准,属于高收入国家,而且基本接近发达国家平均水平,见图 1。然而从产业结构和产业形态来看,沙特与发达国家

差距仍非常明显。首先,工业产值占 GDP 比重过高,服务业发展滞后。2011 年工业占比为 63%,随后出现回落,2015 年为 45%,但仍远高于发达国家 25% 左右的平均水平。其次,产业结构“一

油独大 ”,2015 年石油产业增加值占 GDP 比重高达42%。第三,石油产业发展方式比较粗放,长期以资源开采和初级产品加工为主,深加工能力不足,产品附加值较低,行业发展水平有待提高。

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