Pioneers of Flight

飞行先驱

Jet Asia Pacific - - Contents -

Born July 18, 1921, John Glenn became one of aviation’s most recognizable names, gaining worldwide fame as an astronaut. Before his illustrious career in space, he was an aviator and engineer, and later served as a US Senator for the State of Ohio, rounding out his lifetime of public service.

Raised in New Concord, Ohio, Glenn sought an engineering degree at Muskingum College. He earned a private pilot’s license in 1941, beginning his flying career. When Japan attacked the US in 1942, Glenn dropped out of college and enlisted in the US Army Air Corps, but was not called to duty, prompting him to enlist as a US Navy aviation cadet in March 1942. His flight training then continued, first at the University of Iowa and later at the Naval Air Station Olathe in Kansas, where he made his first solo flight in a military aircraft. When he was engaged in advanced training at the Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, in Texas, he accepted an offer to transfer to the US Marine Corps and was commissioned as a second lieutenant in March 1943.

Glenn returned to the US at the end of his year-long tour of duty and was assigned to the Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point. He was eventually assigned to VMF-913, another Corsair squadron, where he was told he had qualified for a regular commission, after having been promoted to captain shortly before the end of the war.

In March 1946, Glenn volunteered for service in North China, where he was based at Nanyuan Field, near Beijing. He flew patrol missions there for over a year before being sent to Guam. By the time he returned to the US in December 1948, it had been a two-year tour.

Glenn began working in NASA almost as soon as it was formed. He joined the crew of Mercury Seven, while still maintaining his post as an officer in the Marine Corps. Glenn later became the first American to orbit the Earth, turning him into an iconic figure. He retired from NASA in 1964, at age 42.

Glenn enjoyed a successful political career after his retirement from NASA, first elected to the Senate in 1974. He continued service as a Senator until 1999. In 1998, he helped found the John Glenn Institute for Public Service and Public Policy at Ohio State University.

Glenn returned to space once more aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery in 1998. Ever a lover of aviation, Glenn maintained his private pilot’s license until well into his 80s, only giving up flying when knee problems made it difficult for him and his wife to get into the cockpit. Glenn died on December 8, 2016, at the age of 95. No cause of death was disclosed. His body was interred at the Arlington National Cemetery on April 6, 2017.

约翰·格伦( John Glenn),生于1921年7月18日,享誉世界的宇航员,航空界最知名的人物之一。在其辉煌的太空人职业生涯之前,他曽是一名飞行员和工程师。退休后格伦担任美国俄亥俄州的参议员,终其一生致力公共服务事业。

格伦在俄亥俄州的新康科德( New Concord)长大,求学于马斯京根大学( Muskingum College),取得工程学士学位。他于1941年获得私人飞行员执照,开始飞行生涯。1942年日本袭击美国时,格伦从大学退学,加入了美国陆军航空兵团,但未被征召服役,这促使他在1942年3月成为美国海军航空学员。格伦先在爱荷华大学继续他的飞行训练,后在堪萨斯州的奥拉西( Olathe)海军航空站,驾驶一架军用飞机完成了首次独自飞行。1943年3月格伦在德克萨斯州的科珀斯克里斯蒂( Corpus Christi)海军航空站参加高级飞行训练时,受邀调入美国海军陆战队并被任命为少尉。

格伦在结束了长达一年的任务后返回美国,被派往海军陆战队樱桃点航空站。他最终被派往另一个海盗中队VMF-913。在战争结束前不久,他被提升为上尉,之后被委任为军官。

1946年3月,格伦主动请缨到中国华北地区,驻扎在北京附近的南苑机场。他在那里执行了一年多的巡逻任务,之后被派往关岛。格伦于1948年月12回到美国本土,这段旅程过去了两年多。

格伦在NASA(美国国家航空航天局)刚成立时,就开始在当局工作。他加入了水星七号机组,同时仍然担任海军陆战队的军官职务。过后,格伦成为第一个绕地球飞行的美国人,因此他成为了一个标志性人物。1964年, 42岁的格伦退休离开NASA。

格伦从美国国家航空航天局退休后的政治生涯获得了成功。他于1974年首次当选参议员,后继续担任参议员至1999年。1998年格伦帮助俄亥俄州立大学成立了约翰·格伦公共服务和公共政策研究所。

1998年格伦登上发现号航天飞机重返太空。作为曾经的航空爱好者,格伦一直持有自己的私人飞行员执照到80多岁,直到他和妻子因膝盖问题难以进入驾驶舱时才放弃飞行。格伦于2016年12月8日辞世,享年95岁,死亡原因没有披露。2017年4月6日,他的遗体被安葬在阿灵顿国家公墓。

"President Barack Obama presents former United States Marine Corps pilot, astronaut and United States Senator John Glenn with a Medal of Freedom, Tuesday, May 29, 2012, during a ceremony at the White House in Washington."

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