Effects of Production Techniques of Hainan Sweet Rice Wine on the Bitterness of Higher Alcohols

Liquor-Making Science and Technology - - News -

YANG Dongsheng and LI Guoqing (Department of Bioengineering, School of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Hainan University, Haikou, Hainan 570228, China) Abstract: Hainan sweet rice wine is an alcoholic beverage with sweetness as the dominating taste. Its production technology has important influences on its flavor. Higher alcohols are the indispensable flavoring compounds in Hainan sweet rice wine. Adequate amount of higher alcohols may endow wine with enjoyable aroma and excessive amount of higher alcohols will result in bitter wine taste. The production procedures of sweet rice wine include soaking, cooking, drying, starter mixing, saccharifying and fermentation. In this study, the effects of fermenting temperature, yeast using level, and raw materials on higher alcohols content were investigated by single factor test and orthogonal experiments. The results suggested that fermenting temperature was the key factor and yeast using level was the second important influencing factor. The higher the fermenting temperature, the more higher alcohols produced which further formed bitter taste. On the other hand, the more the adding level of wine yeast, yeast autolysis and the yield of tyrosine finally turning into tyrosol would also produce bitter taste. The bitter taste usually formed in late saccharifying and fermenting stage. As higher alcohols content exceeded the threshold value, bitter taste occurred in wine. Quinine was used as the standards to evaluate the bitterness of higher alcohols and a relation between the detection value of higher alcohols and the bitterness degree had been established in this study. Key words: Hainan sweet rice wine; technique; higher alcohol; bitterness

海南甜米酒是在市场上广受欢迎的饮料,起源于海南黎族、苗族等少数民族地区。最早的甜米酒是山兰米酒,以山兰稻酿造而成。山兰稻是旱稻,生长于山坡,过去是少数民族的主要口粮,后用于酿制甜酒。山兰稻有多种,分为糯稻和非糯稻,酿制山兰酒多以糯稻为主要原

[1]料 。目前所用原料不局限于山兰糯稻,其他海南糯米和外地糯米也可用来酿造甜米酒。海南甜米酒口感以甜为主,略带酸,微苦。由于在糖化发酵期间以糖化过程为主,因此,酒精度不高,约为5 %vol。香气以米香为主体, 312079) 酯香突出,由于是鲜制甜酒,因此产气充分。酒的颜色因当地稻米而不同,有淡红、淡乳色等。海南甜米酒多为手工作坊酿制,品质良莠不齐,如果在酿制过程中的温度、用曲量等因素控制不好,容易出现苦味加重的情况。苦味使甜米酒口感变粗糙,同时多随酒味更加明显,容易“上头”。

酒的口味主要有甜、酸、苦、辣、鲜、涩6味,苦味是酒类的风格之一,无苦味则酒味淡薄,有苦味则要恰如其分,能快速消失的苦味是最合适的,如果后味太苦,则产

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