Primary and secondary school students spent huge amounts of time in after-class training institutions, taking new lessons and brushing up on exam techniques. China has at least 200,000 after-class training institutions and more than a million affiliated teachers fighting for market share of an 800 billion yuan (US$128B) industry. In late March 2018, China's Ministry of Education announced new regulations for after-school training institutions targeting primary and secondary school students, requiring local education authorities to formulate plans to reduce the burden on students. Under the new regulations, institutions that are prone to safety violations, lack permits, engage in exam-oriented training or hire teachers from public schools will be forced to close. But education experts said the best way to reduce the academic burden on students would be to reform the country's exam-oriented education system.