基于 BIM的小型节能建筑生命周期环境影响和成本分析

South Architecture - - 第一页 - 1 3 2 李奇芫 杨向群 杨崴 Li Qiyuan Yang Xiangqun Yang Wei

BIM-based LCA and LCC Study on Small Scale Energy Efficient Buildings

摘要 被动式超低能耗建筑通过被动式设计策略、高性能的围护结构和高效的设备体系降低其使用阶段能耗。零能耗建筑在此基础上,采用太阳能光伏发电等可再生能源系统,进一步降低不可再生能源消耗。这两类节能建筑的材料和设备系统的隐含能耗、环境影响和成本通常高于一般建筑,同时对构件的后期维护和替换提出了更高的要求。因此,有必要从生命周期的范畴分析其环境和经济效益。建筑信息模型(BIM)能够为建筑项目的建造、运行和拆解等阶段提供多专业共享的数据平台。本文基于BIM,通过LCA和LCC方法对一座小型住宅建筑在不同节能目标情景下的生命周期全球变暖潜势值(GWP)、一次能耗(PE)和成本(LCC)进行分析和比较。结果表明,零能耗乃至正能源建筑在降低一次能耗和GWP方面具有明显优势,被动式超低能耗建筑也具有良好的环境效益。在经济效益方面,由于住宅建筑能源价格较低,如果按近年的价格指数计算,零能耗建筑和被动式超低能耗建筑的初建成本和后期构件替换成本增量将抵消其使用阶段节约的能耗成本,因此生命周期成本高于普通节能建筑。如果未来50年能源价格涨幅超过建筑安装价格涨幅,那么零能耗建筑在生命周期成本方面将具有优势。

关键词 小型建筑;建筑信息模型(BIM);生命周期评价(LCA);生命周期成本(LCC) abstract Passive extra-low energy consumption buildings reduce their operation cost through passive design strategies, high-performing building envelopes, and efficient mechanical systems. Zero energy consumption buildings further reduce non-renewable energy consumption by applying renewable energy systems such as PV modules. These two types of energy efficient buildings often have higher hidden energy consumption, environmental impact and cost in both building materials and equipments, and have higher requirements in maintenance and replacement of building parts. Thus, it is necessary to analyze their resource consumption and environmental impact across their entire life cycle. Building Information Modeling (BIM) can provide a inter-disciplinary data platform that could be shared among design, construction, operation, and demolition stages of a building project. By integrating BIM with LCA and LCC methods, the GWP, PE, and LCC values of a small scale residential building under three different energy-saving scenarios are analyzed and compared. The results show that zero energy consumption buildings and PlusEnergy Buildings have obvious advantages in lowering their PE and GWP values, while passive extra-low energy consumption buildings have good environmental benefits. In terms of economic benefits, due to the low energy price of residential buildings and based on recent price index, the initial and replacement cost of zero and passive extra-low energy consumption buildings will offset the energy savings benefit during operation, which makes their life cycle costs higher than regular energy efficient buildings. However, if the increase rate of energy price grows higher than that of building construction price in future 50 years, zero energy consumption buildings will have advantage in life cycle costs.

KeY Words small scale building; building information modeling (BIM); life cycle assessment (LCA); life cycle cost (LCC) *国家自然科学基金资助项目:基于BIM的建筑生命周期环境与经济性能评价及优化设计方法,项目编号:51478294;基于参数化建筑信息模型的建筑节能优化系统研究,项目编号:51628803;天津市应用基础与前沿技术计划项目:基于动态信息模型的建筑生命周期可持续性评价,项目编号:15JCYBJC49000;国家科技计划国际科技合作项目:低碳城市与绿色建筑设计关键技术研究,项目编号:2014DFE70210;教育部外专局引智计划项目:低碳城市与建筑创新引智基地:项目编号: B13011。

中图分类号 TU201.5文献标识码 A

DOI 10.3969/j.issn.1000-0232.2017.02.045文章编号 1000-0232(2017)02-0045-06

1 2 3 1&3作者简介 硕士研究生; 天津城建大学建筑学院,讲师,通讯作者,电子邮箱 :xq_yang@tcu.edu.cn ; 教授;天津大学建筑学院

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