城市公园绿地使用的公平研究现状及分析

South Architecture - - 风景园林 - 1 2 周兆森 林广思 Zhou Zhaosen Lin Guangsi

Review of the Equitable Use of Urban Parks and Green Spaces

摘要 近年来,我国经济实力不断提高的同时,百姓贫富差距也在不断拉大,社会公平问题备受大众关注。城市公园绿地作为一项公共服务资源,每位居民都应当有同等的使用机会,这也能够彰显出社会的文明与和谐。文章研究了城市公园绿地使用公平的理论基础,通过对目前已有相关文献的整理和分析,归纳出国内外城市绿地公平研究经历了“地的公平”及“人的公平”两个阶段,研究的关注重点分别侧重于地理空间的公平以及不同使用者群体的分配公平,总结出每个阶段城市公园绿地公平指标的评价方法中,学者们大都利用地理信息系统技术结合可达性研究,进行了公平性的定量分析。

关键词 城市公园;城市绿地;社会公平;可达性;弱势群体aBsTracT In recent years, with the continual improvement in the economic strength of China, the gap between the rich and poor has been increasing. The issue of social equity has attracted great attention from all walks of life. Every citizen should have the same opportunities to utilize urban parks and green spaces as public service resources. The use of these areas shows the civilization and harmony within a society. This study researched the theoretical basis of the equitable use of urban parks and green spaces in China. By summarizing and analyzing existing relevant literature, the study generalized that there are two stages in the study of equity in the use of urban green spaces in China and overseas, which are land equality and human equity. The focus of the present study was on the equality of the space and the equal distribution between different user groups. The study summarized the evaluation method that involved utilizing the fairness index of urban parks and green spaces during each stage, with most scholars applying accessibility studies and quantitative analyses using GIS to achieve that goal.

Key Words urban park; green space; social equity; accessibility; vulnerable group

*国家自然科学基金资助项目:珠三角城市综合公园社会效益测量指标和方法研究,项目编号:51678242;华南理工大学中央高校基本科研业务费资助项目:基于风景园林实践的景观绩效形成机制与影响因素研究,项目编号:2017ZD033。

中图分类号 TU986文献标识码 A

DOI 10.3969/j.issn.1000-0232.2018.03.053文章编号 1000-0232(2018)03-0053-07

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作者简介 华南理工大学建筑学院风景园林系,硕士研究生;华南理工大学建筑学院风景园林系、亚热带建筑科学国家重点实验室、广州市景观建筑重点实验室,教授,通讯作者,电子邮箱:asilin@126.com 1社会公平和城市公园绿地的使用

人们在物质生活品质有了极大提高的今天,必然会对社会公平投入更多关注。但我国自市场化改革以来,经济实力不断提升的同时,百姓的贫富差距也在不断拉大[1]。国际上采用基尼系数衡量一个国家或地区居民的收入差距,通常将0.4 作为 贫富差距的警戒线,超出这一数值容易出现社会动荡,然而从1992年开始,我国总体基尼系数却一直大于或等于国际警戒标准值[2]。由此看来,社会公平问题日益凸显,值得社会各界的广泛关注。

城市中的各类公共服务资源在分配中都应当体现出公平。

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