基于聚居动态进化理论的传统村落形态演变研究

——以湘西地区山背村为例

South Architecture - - 风景园林 - 1 2 3 4 张志强 谭益民 许程 朱昕羽 Zhang Zhiqiang Tan Yimin Xu Cheng Zhu Xinyu

Research on Traditional Village Morphology Evolution based on Dynamic Evolution Theory of Settlement:Case Study of Shanbei Village in Western Hunan

摘要 从聚居动态进化的视角,对山背村民居建筑、聚落组团和村落结构进行了形态演变过程的4个阶段划分和主要影响因素的分析。研究表明:(1)在村落建筑形态演变过程中堂屋空间一直是民居的核心空间;(2)在聚落组团形态演变的前两个时期受到瑶王庙、溪流、耕作半径的影响较大,反应了信仰空间和耕作半径在聚落形成初期对聚落形态演变的影响,在聚落形态演变的后两个时期,信仰空间对聚落的影响出现裂解,人口结构、政策、旅游发展、交通优势等社会发展动因成为村落形态演变的主导;(3)在村落结构演变过程中受到多种作用力的共同影响且每个发展阶段中主导性作用力有所不同。研究成果旨在为传统村落形态保护和聚居文化传承有所助益。

关键词 传统村落;聚居进化;村落形态;山背村aBsTracT From the perspective of the evolution of settlement systems, this study performed morphological research on the Shanbei village and divided it into four phases including traditional residence, settlement group, village structure, and main influencing factors. Results from the present study showed the following: (1) The central room has always been the core of the building space in the residence morphological evolution process; (2) The village morphological structure was influenced by the Yaowang Temple, streams, and farming radius during the first two periods of morphological evolution, which reflects the influence of the belief space and farming at the beginning of settlement, whereas during the last two periods the influence of the belief space on the settlement collapsed and social development motivations including policy, population structure, tourism development, and traffic advantages became the main influencing factors; (3) Multiple forces operated in the evolution of the village structure, with the dominant force being different during each developmental stage. The present study was designed to provide support to the protection of traditional village morphology and the inheritance of historical settlement culture.

Key Words traditional village; settlement evolution; village morphology; village of Shanbei

*湖南省研究生科研创新项目:精准扶贫背景下偏远少数民族地区传统村落保护与旅游发展研究——以湘西三村为例,项目编号:CX2016B640。

中图分类号 TU982.29文献标识码 A

DOI 10.3969/j.issn.1000-0232.2018.03.071 文章编号 1000-0232(2018)03-0071-07

作者简介 1&3&4 硕士研究生;2 教授,通讯作者,电子邮箱:csfutanyimin@126.com;1&2&3&4 湖南工业大学城市与环境学院

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