政府管制视野下德国空间规划框架及体系特点与启发

South Architecture - - 城乡规划 - 1 2 李鑫 蔡文婷 Li Xin Cai Wenting

Framework and Features of the German Spatial Planning System and Its Inspiration from the Government Regulation Perspective

摘要 政府管制政府手段的核心目标是实现负外部效应削减,增加政府收益,提高人民福祉。空间规划作为社会资源调度和配置的工具必然需要政府监管。由于城镇化加速,现有空间规划监管体系已无法满足可持续发展的需求,各种问题已经凸显,如垂直管理机构各自表述和横向的多规并行等。文章在政府管制视野下对德国空间规划机构、运作和特点进行观察,尤其以其法规体系、内外部协同和多规整合等3个方面进行阐述,期望能够从中对中国的空间规划发展和改革提供有益的启示。

关键词 空间规划体系;政府管制;综合规划;专项规划aBsTracT Government regulation refers to the policy management by which a government aims to reduce negative external effects and increase social benefits. Spatial planning is considered to be the management tool of social resource transmission and configuration must be adopted during the management process of government regulation. Owing to rapid urbanization throughout China, the existing regulation system for spatial planning fails to meet the requirements of sustainable development, which has already resulted in various problems, such as conflicts in multiple-layer governmental originations and principle disconnection in different planning. By observation of the German spatial planning structure, operation, and features, including the law system, inside and outside synergy, and the integration of multiple-dimensional planning, the present study aimed to provide inspiration to the current spatial planning and reform in China.

Key Words spatial planning system; government regulation; comprehensive planning; sectoral planning中图分类号 TU984文献标识码 A

DOI 10.3969/j.issn.1000-0232.2018.03.090 文章编号 1000-0232(2018)03-0090-06

作者简介 1上海交通大学农业与生物学院,助理研究员;2浙江财经大学中国政府管制研究院,博士研究生;住房和城乡建设部城乡规划管理中心,副研究员;汉诺威大学访问学者,通讯作者,电子邮箱:wendy919@163.com 前言

当今中国城市正处于深度的转型期,以经济增长为诉求的城镇化过程,逐渐面临资源紧缺、交通系统、环境以及人口等诸方面压力。而把空间规划作为改革契机,重新梳理资源配置方式与方法,对城乡资源和基础设施进行再布局以缓解压力成为被认可的主要措施之一[1]。20 世纪90年代中国在不同领域开启体制改革,但至今计划经济

官方网站 www.nfjzbjb.com 中对城乡空间规划的行政化干预迹象依然存在,规划体系中还带有浓烈的计划经济色彩,深层次的原因在于缺少相对科学的城乡空间规划监管体系。实际上,政府管制理论得以介入规划体系是基于市场失灵(Market failure)的假设前提 ,也是当代空间规划的重要基础理论[2]。西方市场经济体制较为发达的国家对于政府管制体系的建立和实践积累大量的成果经验。日本在20 世纪 70年代便已经

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