The Spring Fes­ti­val Cus­toms of Hankou in Zhuzhi Lyrics

竹枝词中的民国汉口年俗

Special Focus - - SPOTLIGHT - By Sha Yue文 |沙月

Folk cus­toms are the best em­bod­i­ment of the daily liv­ing wis­dom of lo­cal res­i­dents. Spring Fes­ti­val is a good oc­ca­sion in which lo­cal cus­toms bring them­selves into full dis­play. Dur­ing the late Qing Dy­nasty and the early Repub­lic era, Hankou was a splen­did stage in which the lo­cal cus­toms as fam­ily reunion ban­quets, ap­pre­ci­at­ing tra­di­tional op­eras in Yiyuan and Laopu The­atre, see­ing movies in pub­lic parks, en­joy­ing the street per­for­mance of lo­tus gath­er­ing boats, play­ing mahjong with friends, hav­ing western meals, clean­ing them­selve up in a bath house etc., were dis­played in a row, which in­spired some am­a­teur Zhuzhi po­ets.

Wen Chaobo, a Zhuzhi poet, once de­scribed “Vis­it­ing your neigh­bor’s home at Spring Fes­ti­val time, a cup of warm tea is served as a wel­come sign. For it takes time to make the wine hot, the gluti­nous rice buns are of­fered to the guests a lot.” What he recorded was how lo­cal peo­ple in Hankou served the guests at Spring Fes­ti­val time. When a guest en­tered your house, a cup of tea is served firstly, then a gath­er­ing din­ner party is held; Nor­mally the first dish is the gluti­nous rice bun, also called gluti­nous rice cake, which was invit­ing and also had the func­tion of beau­ti­fy­ing one­self ac­cord­ing to lo­cal cus­tom. How­ever, it could not be overeaten for it could eas­ily make one full up. If so, you had no chance of eat­ing more de­li­cious dishes on the ta­ble.

Wen Chaobo was apt at the ob­ser­va­tion. For ex­am­ple, when

民俗,是一方百姓的生存智慧。新年,又是地方民俗表现最充分的时候。清末民初时期,每到春节,汉口犹如民俗展示的大舞台,团年宴,怡园看戏,老圃看戏,公园影院观影,沿街看采莲船,搓麻将,吃西餐,泡澡堂等民俗竞相上演,也成为一些民间竹枝词爱好者灵感的来源。

一位叫文超伯的诗人写道:“拜了张家又李家,进门就是一杯茶。怕因酒热须时刻,敬客先呈糯米粑。”他记录的是汉口接待拜年客人的习俗。先进茶,再开宴;开宴第一道菜肴是“糯米粑”,所谓“糯米粑”,就是糍粑。此物美颜养眼,不过只能少吃,因为糍粑下肚,就会骤然产生饱感。宴席上有再好的菜肴,也只能做看客了。

这位文超伯,目光锐利,尤其擅长观察。如写道上问年的寒暄,他写道:“道途不辨是何人,此礼由来认得真。非比寻常轻点首,相逢总要一躬身。”年关中,道上相遇,都要互致大礼,要“躬身”行礼问年。瞧,汉口人的文明素养早已有之,是有文学作品作证的。

“惟有儿童喜过年,腰中压岁几多钱。买来鬼脸相群戏,或舞刀枪或舞鞭。”汉口的小孩子,自小生活在一个时代变革前沿,他们自小就可以在自然山水中群相游戏,这一点,在道光年间的叶调元的竹枝词中也可以频频看到生动而温暖的记载。

文伯超更感兴趣的是,孩子们的压岁钱如何处理?汉口的孩子很幸福,可以自己做主的。你看,可以去买自己喜欢“鬼脸”,还可以买刀枪买竹鞭,玩打仗游戏。不像现在,好多家庭的小孩,压岁钱的红包一到手,就秒塞到了父母口袋里。估计,汉口的孩子是特别希望这个习俗能够被父母们传承下来

的。

等拜年人一进门,就要敬上一杯茶。那么拜年的人如何进门呢?民国初年,民间诗人罗懋其写道:“盈盈三五当街立,寻得门牌说笑前。拔下玉钗轻叩启,一声爆竹贺新年。”

这首诗里的习俗,现在早就没有影了。请看这一群群的拜年客,是如何做的。先要认门牌,而后由女客上前, “拔下玉钗”,还要轻轻地“叩”门,让主家欢心适意地开门,来迎接一群群笑脸客。门开了,拜年客的男人们就会点燃一挂鞭炮,给主家带来年的喜

庆和祝福。

这首诗写得格外温馨的,除了一个个听

Newspapers in English

Newspapers from China

© PressReader. All rights reserved.