Ukraine is a geopolitical challenge of energy questions
Ukraine’s pipeline serves the Russian gas of many member states of EU. Two projects of pipelines are considered: the North Stream, sponsored by Germany and Russia and the South Stream that will transport Russian gas to the Western Europe under the Black Sea and through the Balkans, which would come into operation in 2018. Three other projects of pipeline were taken into account. Those pipelines projects would reduce EU’s dependence on Russian gas. Nabucco pipeline project would transport the gas from the Caspian Sea, it was sponsored by Austrian, Hungarian, Bulgarian and Romanian firms, but it has been cancelled in July 2013. Instead, the Trans Anatolian Pipeline (TANAP) funded by Azerbaijan and Turkey is due to come into operation in 2018. And also the Trans Adriatic Pipeline (TAP) will transport the gas from Azerbaijan to Greece, Albania and to southern Italy under the Adriatic Sea.
Yanukovich wanted to renewal lease of Russian fleet in Sebastopol harbor, it brings Russia to have an access to the Black Sea, until 2045 at a moderate price ($89 million by year). In return, Ukraine will benefit a drop price of gas ($40 billion spread out 10 years). The last events suspend this aggreement.
Ukraine is member of a few pro-European organizations: The GUAM (Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Moldova), an organization for democracy and economic development since 1997, in cooperation with EU and USA also; the Council of Europe, a leading human rights organization, since 1995 (47 member states).