The European Commission has given 13 countries, including Greece, two months to transpose European Union rules laying down criminal penalties against sea pollution and other environmental offenses. The directive should have been introduced into national law by December 26, 2010. However, 10 countries, including Greece, have so far failed to do this. Meanwhile, eight states, including Greece, have failed to comply with separate rules on pollution from ships. This directive was due to be implemented by November 16, 2010. Should the member states concerned fail to notify the Commission of implementation measures within two months, it may refer the cases to the European Court of Justice.