8 crore houses con­structed dur­ing 2001-2011

Accommodation Times - - Editorial - By Dr Sanjay Chaturvedi

Fi­nal Fig­ures of House list­ing & Hous­ing Cen­sus, 2011 Re­leased The fi­nal fig­ures of the first phase of Cen­sus 2011 known as House list­ing and Hous­ing Cen­sus was re­leased by Union Home Sec­re­tary, Shri R.K. Singh in New Delhi to­day. As per the House list­ing and Hous­ing Cen­sus 2011, the cen­sus houses in­creased from 25 cr to 33cr. There is an in­crease of 6 cr cen­sus houses for res­i­den­tial and partly res­i­den­tial pur­poses. The data in­di­cates that the hous­ing gap has re­duced. There is an im­prove­ment in the con­struc­tion ma­te­rial used for roof, wall and floor. Thus there is a sub­stan­tial im­prove­ment in the qual­ity of hous­ing both in ru­ral and ur­ban ar­eas.

As re­gards ameni­ties avail­able with the house­holds, 87% of house­holds are us­ing Tap, Tube well, Hand pump and Cov­ered well as the main source of drink­ing wa­ter while 43.5 per­cent use tap wa­ter. Only 47% of house­holds have source of wa­ter within the premises while 36% of house­holds have to fetch wa­ter from a source lo­cated within 500 m in ru­ral ar­eas/100 m in ur­ban ar­eas and 17% still fetch drink­ing wa­ter from a source lo­cated more than 500 m away in ru­ral ar­eas or 100 m in ur­ban area.

As far as Main source of light­ing is con­cerned, 67% house­holds use elec­tric­ity which shows an in­crease of 11pt over 2001. The ru­ral-ur­ban gap has re­duced by 7 per­cent­age points from 44% in 2001 to 37%.

Other ma­jor high­lights of House list­ing & Hous­ing Cen­sus 2011 are:

- 58% of the house­holds have bathing fa­cil­ity within the premises, show­ing an In­crease of 22 pts over 2001.

- Around half of the house­holds have drainage con­nec­tiv­ity with two-third have the open drainage and one-third has the closed drainage.

- 47% of the house­holds have la­trine fa­cil­ity within premises with 36% house­holds have wa­ter closet and 9% house­holds have pit la­trine. There is 11 pt de­cline in house­holds having no la­trine from 64% to 53% in 2011.

- 61% house­holds have Kitchen fa­cil­ity with 55% within premises and 6% out­side premises. Two-third of the house­holds are us­ing fire­wood/crop residue, cow dung cake/coal etc. and 3% house­holds use Kerosene. There is an in­crease of 11 pts in use of LPG from 18% in 2001 to 29% in 2011.

- As re­gards mode of com­mu­ni­ca­tion, there is an in­crease of 16% in tele­vi­sion and a cor­re­spond­ing de­cline of about 15 pt in use of ra­dios/tran­sis­tors. Less than 1 out of 10 house­holds have Com­puter/lap­top with only 3% having in­ter­net fa­cil­ity. The pen­e­tra­tion of in­ter­net is 8% in ur­ban as com­pared to less than 1% in ru­ral area. 63% house­holds have Tele­phone/mo­bile fa­cil­ity with 82% in ur­ban and 54% in ru­ral area. The pen­e­tra­tion of mo­bile phone is 59% and land­line is 10%.

- In the modes of trans­port 45% of the house­hold are having bi­cy­cle, 21% two wheel­ers and 5% four wheel­ers. There is an in­crease of 9 pt in two wheeler and 2 pt in four wheel­ers, with bi­cy­cle show­ing in­crease of 1 pt only. 59% of the house­holds are avail­ing bank­ing fa­cil­i­ties with 68% in ur­ban and 54% in ru­ral ar­eas. The ru­ral ur­ban dif­fer­ence has re­duced from 19 to 13 pt.

- 18% of the house­hold do not have any of the spec­i­fied as­sets.

Cen­sus of In­dia 2011 was con­ducted in two phases. The first phase, called the “Houselist­ing and Hous­ing Cen­sus” was un­der­taken a few months prior to the sec­ond phase termed as “Pop­u­la­tion Enu­mer­a­tion”. The ob­jec­tive of the House list­ing and Hous­ing Cen­sus Op­er­a­tions is to iden­tify each build­ing/cen­sus house and also to as­cer­tain the qual­ity of the cen­sus house, ameni­ties ac­ces­si­ble to it and as­sets avail­able to the house­holds liv­ing in those cen­sus houses. The fun­da­men­tal prin­ci­ple is to cover the en­tire coun­try in a sys­tem­atic man­ner with­out omis­sion or du­pli­ca­tion. The enu­mer­a­tor col­lects the required in­for­ma­tion by vis­it­ing each and ev­ery house­hold and can­vass­ing a writ­ten ques­tion­naire called the Houselist and Hous­ing Sched­ule. In Cen­sus 2011, a pe­riod of 45 days was given for this pur­pose. Ev­ery State/Union Ter­ri­tory chose this pe­riod in a time win­dow start­ing April 2010 to Septem­ber 2010 de­pend­ing upon their con­ve­nience. Ap­prox­i­mately twenty five lakh (or 2.5 mil­lion) enu­mer­a­tors and 2lakh su­per­vi­sors were en­gaged for this op­er­a­tion. The house­holds were vis­ited across the length and breadth of this vast coun­try. What made the ex­er­cise even more chal­leng­ing was the fact that the in­for­ma­tion was col­lected on 35 items and 1.5 crore Cen­sus Sched­ules were can­vassed in 16 In­dian lan­guages. A truly gi­gan­tic ex­er­cise was ac­com­plished with clock-work pre­ci­sion!

Each Cen­sus in In­dia since the first one in 1872, has at­tempted to cap­ture the so­cioe­co­nomic, de­mo­graphic and cul­tural di­ver­sity of this vast coun­try and present it through mea­sur­able in­dices. In this at­tempt, each suc­ceed­ing Cen­sus has at­tempted an im­prove­ment over the pre­vi­ous one.

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