CSIR: IN SERVICE OF THE NATION
Completing 75 years, CSIR today is one of the largest public-funded R&D organisations in the world. Since then its achievements in Science, Technology and Innovation have contributed to National pride
The roots of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) were planted in September 1942, when optimism outweighed the impediments of national freedom. Envisioned to be a partner in fulfilling the national goal of industrialisation for overall socio-economic development, CSIR has grown in strength and size to acquire a truly pan-india presence. CSIR’S contributions have always been aligned to the Nation’s needs. With the Prime Minister as its President, CSIR is equipped with a dynamic network of 38 national laboratories, 39 outreach centres and five units. CSIR’S R&D expertise and experience is embodied in about 4000 active scientists who are ably supported by about 7000 scientific and technical personnel.
CSIR contributions extend to almost all fields of human activity spanning agriculture, health, energy, strategic sector and aerospace, genetic engineering. Eleven of the 14 new drugs developed in independent India are from CSIR. It has given the Nation– Amul baby food, Nutan stove, Saheli a non-steroidal once-a-week oral contraceptive pill for women, E-mal for resistant malaria, Asmon, a herbal therapeutic for asthma, Flosolver India’s first parallel computer, Swaraj, Sonalika and Krishi Shakti tractors, and the indelible ink which adorns the finger of a proud Indian voter during elections.
According to the Scimago Institutions Ranking World Report 2016, CSIR is ranked 12th in the World in Government institutions and is the only Indian organisation to have found a place among the top 100 global institutions. CSIR is committed to delivering the desired knowledge-base required for our Government’s missions, such as ‘Make in India’, ‘Innovate in India’, ‘Swachh Bharat’, ‘Swasth Bharat’, ‘Namami Gange’, ‘Digital India’, ‘Skill India’ and ‘Start-up India’.
From powering national S&T to empowering all sections of society
Over the years, CSIR’S efforts at bringing in desired Science & Technology interventions have enhanced self-reliance contributing to nation building. The S&T interventions have allowed burgeoning of the Indian industry while also improving the quality of life, removing drudgery and augmenting the income of common people.
Building Nation’s Intellectual Property Portfolio
CSIR is the number one Indian R&D organization in obtaining patents, and maintaining a strong portfolio of patents, aiming at creating S&T niches in select technology domains. On an average, CSIR files about 250 Indian patents and 300 foreign patents each year. CSIR licenses 13.3% of its patents – a number much above the world average of 3-5%.
Diversity in S&T – CSIR’S Forte
CSIR spans across disciplines within Science and Technology – from radio and space physics, oceanography, earth sciences, geophysics, chemicals, drugs, genomics, biotechnology and nanotechnology to mining, aeronautics, instrumentation, environmental engineering and information technology. In doing so, CSIR partners with the industry in a significant manner, boasting of an impressive clientele.
Aerospace – Flying High
CSIR plays a pivotal role in creating an enabling ecosystem for aerospace technology deployment in the country, by providing advanced technology solutions with a strong science footing.
With its growing involvement in the Indian space program, its multidisciplinary activities and global positioning, CSIR provides vital support to all major National aerospace programs which include aircraft, missiles, launch vehicles, satellites, defence systems and services. Notable achievements of the CSIR are Hansa, technology components for Tejas, CNM5, Drishti, Dhvani, Head-up Display, etc.
CSIR with its proven capacity in the aerospace sector and a focus on civil aviation aspires to develop a 90-100 seater civilian aircraft to create a new and enviable niche for the country.
CSIR has contributed immensely for value added agriculture. CSIR efforts are focused at important medicinal & aromatic and dye plants, floriculture and the development of agriculture related machines/devices to enhance the income of farmers. CSIR has developed many new varieties of medicinal, aromatic and economic plants along with development of processes/machines for their value addition.
Also in the domain of farm machinery and implements its contributions have been by way of farm implements and post-harvest technologies, such as improved techniques for processing and storage; processed products; high value products from spices etc. CSIR has developed technologies and S&T interventions to value-add the farm produce and make available nutritionally rich food products.
CSIR technologies are well deployed across the country and contribute significantly to both better production and improve the livelihood of farmers through value added agriculture.
CSIR is strengthening modern biology to bring forth applications in the improvement of crops and medicinal plants, development of bio-fertilisers, biopesticides and other products of relevance.
Healthcare – Affordability, Accessibility and Availability
The strength of CSIR in modern science and drug development has positioned the organisation to lead in healthcare. Its expertise and skills across domains, such as chemical biology, diagnostics and therapeutics against neglected and chronic diseases, biologics, characterised herbal formulations, and identification of new drug targets to fasten drug discovery, gives it a unique positioning for pursuing interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary R&D. Notable achievements of the CSIR include: Streptokinase – Natural Streptokinase, India’s first indigenous clot buster for heart attacks, followed by recombinant and third and fourth generation versions; Risorine, Prostalyn pill, once a week family planning drug Centchroman, Arteether, Memory Sure, Asmon, anti-arthritis herbal formulation, anti-fungal herbal formulation to name a few.
In the domain of microbial technology, efforts are focused on basic and applied R&D in emerging areas of relevant biotechnology, including genetic engineering and optimising the microbial processes. CSIR develops and maintains gene pool resources and genetic stocks of microbial cultures and other cell lines. It also designs and develops process equipment and bioreactors.
Some significant achievements include Superoxide dismutase; metal gluconates; energy efficient alcohol technology; Alkaline Protease; Alpha Amylase; microbial whole cell biocatalysts; etc.
Chemicals & Chemical Technology, Petrochemicals and Energy
CSIR has been instrumental in creating and nurturing chemical industry in general and specialty chemicals and catalyst industry in particular in the country. It has contributed significantly in the areas of drugs & pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, chloralkali, lipids, catalysis, functional materials, corrosion, protection, coal, mining, energy, etc.
Some notable achievements are Novel processes for ATBS, Hydrazine hydrate and Misoprostol, UF membranes for water purification, sulphate of potash, high purity salt, India’s first lithium-ion battery, SOFC and PEM fuel cells, ethanol and furfural from lignocellulosic biomass in bio refinery mode, reinforcement, corrosion protection coating for fence of Wagah border, Dindigul railway station, Radial gate components of Sardarsarovar dam, 1-2 propane-diol from bioglycerol, ENSEL process for biodiesel and bio lubricants from non-edible oils etc.
In the petroleum sector, CSIR has helped in breaking the stranglehold of the near cartel situation in technology. Its contributions have been wide ranging – from oil field chemicals
and additives for drilling and transportation to the state-of-the-art refinery processes.
The major technological interventions include petroleum refining technology, including the development of separation, conversion and upgradation processes for crude oil supplied to the refinery together with synthesis of speciality and fine chemicals for treating and blending the refined crude.
Notable contributions in petroleum segment includes wax deoiling technology at NRL, simultaneous production of US grade gasoline and pure benzene from FCC C6 heart cut at RIL refinery, Ram rocket fuel equivalent to T-6 fuel of Russian origin for Brahmos missile, soaker drug internals for vis-breaking unit at IOCL refinery, etc.
CSIR would empower India to transform from a fossil fuel economy to a bio-economy.
In chemical sector, CSIR’S current focus is on: adequate and clean energy, strategic materials, CO2 capture and utilisation, coal to liquid technologies, coal gasification, bio avionics fuels, waste plastic to fuel and sustainable chemical industry.
Leather and Leather Technologies
CSIR has placed India at the forefront globally in leather and leather technologies that have created a new industry which is product driven and is creating jobs across the country.
In the domain of Leather Processing, CSIR has played a stellar role. It also had a key role in the growth of the tanning industry in India, making it green by providing environmentally sustainable technologies. Also it has provided cutting edge technology for the production of a wide variety of finished leathers and leather products. The role of CSIR in training and nurturing skilled manpower for leather industry is also noteworthy.
CSIR’S constituent laboratory – CLRI is recognised as a Centre of Excellence for cleaner leather production in the world today and with its expertise and infrastructural facilities, it is striving to support the Indian leather product sector to become a global leader.
Glass and Ceramics
CSIR has a unique knowledge-base which includes technologies for glass forming machines and glass linked equipment, various types of optical glasses, laser glass, infra-red transmitting filters, synthetic quartz single crystal, high-temperature protective enamels, high alumina ceramic seals, spacers and ceramic pottery.
Some key achievements are C-band Optical Amplifier for Cable TV application, radiation shielding glasses, laser glasses, speciality glasses, anti scratch coatings on plastic ophthalmic lenses, ceramic based hip joint prostheses and hydroxyapatite based integrated orbital implants, garnet sand based hard abrasion resistant tiles, low melting high sodium content borosilicate glass beads, rare earth doped optical fiber, borosilicate glass nodules for immobilization of radioactive wastes from nuclear plants, etc.
Electronics & Instrumentation – Nurturing Futuristic Technologies
CSIR has been an active player in assisting electronics, instrumentation and process control industry in technology development, absorption, upgradation and diversification. Ksheer scanner for quick detection of diverse adulterants in milk, useful for dairy and milk cooperatives has been developed and deployed at a large scale in the country as an effective measure to ensure high quality milk. Confocal microscope based on supercontinuum light source for high resolution scanning is another significant contribution. Advanced earthquake warning system developed by CSIR is being used by Delhi Metro.
CSIR supports the Health Sector with its low-cost innovations in the areas of medical diagnostics/devices based on micro sensors, novel prosthetic aids and robotic aids for surgery. Further, in the agro sector, crop health monitoring, agro-produce gradation, nondestructive quality assessments and postharvest monitoring and control to reduce losses are some important areas for future development. In addition, CSIR has a strong support for electronics related to pollution control devices and developing photovoltaics in the energy sector.
Infrastructure – Building and Strengthening National Capacity
CSIR has been catalysing the infrastructure planning, particularly of the roads, buildings and bridges by providing an up-to-date knowledge base and human resources through strategic alliances. It lays special emphasis on the development of alternate construction materials utilising waste, economising on energy, disaster mitigation, solutions for affordable housing and precast ferro cement toilet core unit.
CSIR has developed an indigenous substitute of Ukraine clay for the ceramic tiles, which has reduced the Ukraine clay requirement from 20% to about 1%. Over the last few decades, CSIR has contributed significantly in developing innovative solutions towards cost-effective and safe
The efforts of TEAM-CSIR are now fully devoted to high quality innovative science and R&D, which fulfills the aspirations of society. Our Government, led by Hon’ble Prime Minister, who is also the President of the CSIR Society, has envisioned goals and outcomes for India. We are fully committed to these, in step with other Scientific Wings of the Country Dr. Girish Sahni DG, CSIR and Secretary, DSIR