CSIR: IN SER­VICE OF THE NA­TION

Com­plet­ing 75 years, CSIR to­day is one of the largest pub­lic-funded R&D or­gan­i­sa­tions in the world. Since then its achieve­ments in Sci­ence, Tech­nol­ogy and In­no­va­tion have con­trib­uted to Na­tional pride

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The roots of Coun­cil of Sci­en­tific and In­dus­trial Re­search (CSIR) were planted in Septem­ber 1942, when op­ti­mism out­weighed the im­ped­i­ments of na­tional free­dom. En­vi­sioned to be a part­ner in ful­fill­ing the na­tional goal of in­dus­tri­al­i­sa­tion for over­all so­cio-eco­nomic de­vel­op­ment, CSIR has grown in strength and size to ac­quire a truly pan-in­dia pres­ence. CSIR’S con­tri­bu­tions have al­ways been aligned to the Na­tion’s needs. With the Prime Min­is­ter as its Pres­i­dent, CSIR is equipped with a dy­namic net­work of 38 na­tional lab­o­ra­to­ries, 39 outreach cen­tres and five units. CSIR’S R&D ex­per­tise and ex­pe­ri­ence is em­bod­ied in about 4000 ac­tive sci­en­tists who are ably sup­ported by about 7000 sci­en­tific and tech­ni­cal per­son­nel.

CSIR con­tri­bu­tions ex­tend to al­most all fields of hu­man ac­tiv­ity span­ning agri­cul­ture, health, en­ergy, strate­gic sec­tor and aero­space, ge­netic engi­neer­ing. Eleven of the 14 new drugs de­vel­oped in in­de­pen­dent In­dia are from CSIR. It has given the Na­tion– Amul baby food, Nu­tan stove, Sa­heli a non-steroidal once-a-week oral con­tra­cep­tive pill for women, E-mal for re­sis­tant malaria, As­mon, a herbal ther­a­peu­tic for asthma, Flo­solver In­dia’s first par­al­lel com­puter, Swaraj, Son­alika and Kr­ishi Shakti trac­tors, and the in­deli­ble ink which adorns the fin­ger of a proud In­dian voter dur­ing elec­tions.

Ac­cord­ing to the Scimago In­sti­tu­tions Rank­ing World Re­port 2016, CSIR is ranked 12th in the World in Gov­ern­ment in­sti­tu­tions and is the only In­dian or­gan­i­sa­tion to have found a place among the top 100 global in­sti­tu­tions. CSIR is com­mit­ted to de­liv­er­ing the de­sired knowl­edge-base re­quired for our Gov­ern­ment’s mis­sions, such as ‘Make in In­dia’, ‘In­no­vate in In­dia’, ‘Swachh Bharat’, ‘Swasth Bharat’, ‘Na­mami Gange’, ‘Digital In­dia’, ‘Skill In­dia’ and ‘Start-up In­dia’.

From pow­er­ing na­tional S&T to em­pow­er­ing all sec­tions of so­ci­ety

Over the years, CSIR’S ef­forts at bring­ing in de­sired Sci­ence & Tech­nol­ogy in­ter­ven­tions have en­hanced self-re­liance con­tribut­ing to na­tion build­ing. The S&T in­ter­ven­tions have al­lowed bur­geon­ing of the In­dian in­dus­try while also im­prov­ing the qual­ity of life, re­mov­ing drudgery and aug­ment­ing the in­come of com­mon peo­ple.

Build­ing Na­tion’s In­tel­lec­tual Prop­erty Port­fo­lio

CSIR is the num­ber one In­dian R&D or­ga­ni­za­tion in ob­tain­ing patents, and main­tain­ing a strong port­fo­lio of patents, aim­ing at cre­at­ing S&T niches in se­lect tech­nol­ogy do­mains. On an av­er­age, CSIR files about 250 In­dian patents and 300 for­eign patents each year. CSIR li­censes 13.3% of its patents – a num­ber much above the world av­er­age of 3-5%.

Di­ver­sity in S&T – CSIR’S Forte

CSIR spans across dis­ci­plines within Sci­ence and Tech­nol­ogy – from ra­dio and space physics, oceanog­ra­phy, earth sciences, geo­physics, chem­i­cals, drugs, ge­nomics, biotech­nol­ogy and nan­otech­nol­ogy to min­ing, aero­nau­tics, in­stru­men­ta­tion, en­vi­ron­men­tal engi­neer­ing and in­for­ma­tion tech­nol­ogy. In do­ing so, CSIR part­ners with the in­dus­try in a sig­nif­i­cant man­ner, boast­ing of an im­pres­sive clien­tele.

Aero­space – Fly­ing High

CSIR plays a piv­otal role in cre­at­ing an en­abling ecosys­tem for aero­space tech­nol­ogy de­ploy­ment in the coun­try, by pro­vid­ing ad­vanced tech­nol­ogy so­lu­tions with a strong sci­ence foot­ing.

With its grow­ing in­volve­ment in the In­dian space pro­gram, its mul­ti­dis­ci­plinary ac­tiv­i­ties and global po­si­tion­ing, CSIR pro­vides vi­tal sup­port to all ma­jor Na­tional aero­space pro­grams which in­clude air­craft, mis­siles, launch ve­hi­cles, satel­lites, de­fence sys­tems and ser­vices. No­table achieve­ments of the CSIR are Hansa, tech­nol­ogy com­po­nents for Te­jas, CNM5, Dr­ishti, Dh­vani, Head-up Dis­play, etc.

CSIR with its proven ca­pac­ity in the aero­space sec­tor and a fo­cus on civil aviation as­pires to de­velop a 90-100 seater civil­ian air­craft to cre­ate a new and en­vi­able niche for the coun­try.

Agro-food Tech­nolo­gies

CSIR has con­trib­uted im­mensely for value added agri­cul­ture. CSIR ef­forts are fo­cused at im­por­tant medic­i­nal & aro­matic and dye plants, flori­cul­ture and the de­vel­op­ment of agri­cul­ture re­lated ma­chines/de­vices to en­hance the in­come of farm­ers. CSIR has de­vel­oped many new va­ri­eties of medic­i­nal, aro­matic and eco­nomic plants along with de­vel­op­ment of pro­cesses/ma­chines for their value ad­di­tion.

Also in the do­main of farm ma­chin­ery and im­ple­ments its con­tri­bu­tions have been by way of farm im­ple­ments and post-har­vest tech­nolo­gies, such as im­proved tech­niques for pro­cess­ing and stor­age; pro­cessed prod­ucts; high value prod­ucts from spices etc. CSIR has de­vel­oped tech­nolo­gies and S&T in­ter­ven­tions to value-add the farm pro­duce and make avail­able nu­tri­tion­ally rich food prod­ucts.

CSIR tech­nolo­gies are well de­ployed across the coun­try and con­trib­ute sig­nif­i­cantly to both bet­ter pro­duc­tion and im­prove the liveli­hood of farm­ers through value added agri­cul­ture.

CSIR is strength­en­ing mod­ern bi­ol­ogy to bring forth ap­pli­ca­tions in the im­prove­ment of crops and medic­i­nal plants, de­vel­op­ment of bio-fer­tilis­ers, biopes­ti­cides and other prod­ucts of rel­e­vance.

Health­care – Af­ford­abil­ity, Ac­ces­si­bil­ity and Avail­abil­ity

The strength of CSIR in mod­ern sci­ence and drug de­vel­op­ment has po­si­tioned the or­gan­i­sa­tion to lead in health­care. Its ex­per­tise and skills across do­mains, such as chem­i­cal bi­ol­ogy, di­ag­nos­tics and ther­a­peu­tics against ne­glected and chronic dis­eases, bi­o­log­ics, char­ac­terised herbal for­mu­la­tions, and iden­ti­fi­ca­tion of new drug tar­gets to fas­ten drug dis­cov­ery, gives it a unique po­si­tion­ing for pur­su­ing in­ter­dis­ci­pli­nary and trans­dis­ci­plinary R&D. No­table achieve­ments of the CSIR in­clude: Strep­tok­i­nase – Nat­u­ral Strep­tok­i­nase, In­dia’s first in­dige­nous clot buster for heart at­tacks, fol­lowed by re­com­bi­nant and third and fourth gen­er­a­tion ver­sions; Risorine, Prostalyn pill, once a week fam­ily plan­ning drug Centchro­man, Ar­teether, Mem­ory Sure, As­mon, anti-arthri­tis herbal for­mu­la­tion, anti-fun­gal herbal for­mu­la­tion to name a few.

Mi­cro­bial Tech­nol­ogy

In the do­main of mi­cro­bial tech­nol­ogy, ef­forts are fo­cused on ba­sic and ap­plied R&D in emerg­ing ar­eas of rel­e­vant biotech­nol­ogy, in­clud­ing ge­netic engi­neer­ing and op­ti­mis­ing the mi­cro­bial pro­cesses. CSIR de­vel­ops and main­tains gene pool re­sources and ge­netic stocks of mi­cro­bial cul­tures and other cell lines. It also de­signs and de­vel­ops process equip­ment and biore­ac­tors.

Some sig­nif­i­cant achieve­ments in­clude Su­per­ox­ide dis­mu­tase; metal glu­conates; en­ergy ef­fi­cient al­co­hol tech­nol­ogy; Al­ka­line Protease; Al­pha Amy­lase; mi­cro­bial whole cell bio­cat­a­lysts; etc.

Chem­i­cals & Chem­i­cal Tech­nol­ogy, Petro­chem­i­cals and En­ergy

CSIR has been in­stru­men­tal in cre­at­ing and nur­tur­ing chem­i­cal in­dus­try in gen­eral and spe­cialty chem­i­cals and cat­a­lyst in­dus­try in par­tic­u­lar in the coun­try. It has con­trib­uted sig­nif­i­cantly in the ar­eas of drugs & phar­ma­ceu­ti­cals, agro­chem­i­cals, chlo­ral­kali, lipids, catal­y­sis, func­tional ma­te­ri­als, cor­ro­sion, pro­tec­tion, coal, min­ing, en­ergy, etc.

Some no­table achieve­ments are Novel pro­cesses for ATBS, Hy­drazine hy­drate and Miso­pros­tol, UF mem­branes for wa­ter pu­rifi­ca­tion, sul­phate of potash, high pu­rity salt, In­dia’s first lithium-ion bat­tery, SOFC and PEM fuel cells, ethanol and fur­fural from lig­no­cel­lu­losic biomass in bio re­fin­ery mode, re­in­force­ment, cor­ro­sion pro­tec­tion coat­ing for fence of Wa­gah bor­der, Dindigul rail­way sta­tion, Ra­dial gate com­po­nents of Sar­darsarovar dam, 1-2 propane-diol from bio­glyc­erol, ENSEL process for biodiesel and bio lu­bri­cants from non-ed­i­ble oils etc.

In the pe­tro­leum sec­tor, CSIR has helped in break­ing the stran­gle­hold of the near car­tel sit­u­a­tion in tech­nol­ogy. Its con­tri­bu­tions have been wide rang­ing – from oil field chem­i­cals

and ad­di­tives for drilling and trans­porta­tion to the state-of-the-art re­fin­ery pro­cesses.

The ma­jor tech­no­log­i­cal in­ter­ven­tions in­clude pe­tro­leum re­fin­ing tech­nol­ogy, in­clud­ing the de­vel­op­ment of sep­a­ra­tion, con­ver­sion and upgra­da­tion pro­cesses for crude oil sup­plied to the re­fin­ery to­gether with syn­the­sis of spe­cial­ity and fine chem­i­cals for treat­ing and blend­ing the re­fined crude.

No­table con­tri­bu­tions in pe­tro­leum seg­ment in­cludes wax deoil­ing tech­nol­ogy at NRL, si­mul­ta­ne­ous pro­duc­tion of US grade gaso­line and pure ben­zene from FCC C6 heart cut at RIL re­fin­ery, Ram rocket fuel equiv­a­lent to T-6 fuel of Rus­sian ori­gin for Brah­mos mis­sile, soaker drug in­ter­nals for vis-break­ing unit at IOCL re­fin­ery, etc.

CSIR would em­power In­dia to trans­form from a fos­sil fuel econ­omy to a bio-econ­omy.

In chem­i­cal sec­tor, CSIR’S cur­rent fo­cus is on: ad­e­quate and clean en­ergy, strate­gic ma­te­ri­als, CO2 cap­ture and util­i­sa­tion, coal to liq­uid tech­nolo­gies, coal gasi­fi­ca­tion, bio avion­ics fu­els, waste plas­tic to fuel and sus­tain­able chem­i­cal in­dus­try.

Leather and Leather Tech­nolo­gies

CSIR has placed In­dia at the fore­front glob­ally in leather and leather tech­nolo­gies that have cre­ated a new in­dus­try which is prod­uct driven and is cre­at­ing jobs across the coun­try.

In the do­main of Leather Pro­cess­ing, CSIR has played a stel­lar role. It also had a key role in the growth of the tan­ning in­dus­try in In­dia, mak­ing it green by pro­vid­ing en­vi­ron­men­tally sus­tain­able tech­nolo­gies. Also it has pro­vided cut­ting edge tech­nol­ogy for the pro­duc­tion of a wide va­ri­ety of fin­ished leathers and leather prod­ucts. The role of CSIR in train­ing and nur­tur­ing skilled man­power for leather in­dus­try is also note­wor­thy.

CSIR’S con­stituent lab­o­ra­tory – CLRI is recog­nised as a Centre of Ex­cel­lence for cleaner leather pro­duc­tion in the world to­day and with its ex­per­tise and in­fras­truc­tural fa­cil­i­ties, it is striv­ing to sup­port the In­dian leather prod­uct sec­tor to be­come a global leader.

Glass and Ce­ram­ics

CSIR has a unique knowl­edge-base which in­cludes tech­nolo­gies for glass form­ing ma­chines and glass linked equip­ment, var­i­ous types of op­ti­cal glasses, laser glass, in­fra-red trans­mit­ting fil­ters, syn­thetic quartz single crys­tal, high-tem­per­a­ture pro­tec­tive enam­els, high alu­mina ce­ramic seals, spac­ers and ce­ramic pot­tery.

Some key achieve­ments are C-band Op­ti­cal Am­pli­fier for Ca­ble TV ap­pli­ca­tion, ra­di­a­tion shield­ing glasses, laser glasses, spe­cial­ity glasses, anti scratch coat­ings on plas­tic oph­thalmic lenses, ce­ramic based hip joint pros­the­ses and hy­drox­ya­p­atite based in­te­grated or­bital im­plants, gar­net sand based hard abra­sion re­sis­tant tiles, low melt­ing high sodium con­tent borosil­i­cate glass beads, rare earth doped op­ti­cal fiber, borosil­i­cate glass nod­ules for im­mo­bi­liza­tion of ra­dioac­tive wastes from nu­clear plants, etc.

Elec­tron­ics & In­stru­men­ta­tion – Nur­tur­ing Fu­tur­is­tic Tech­nolo­gies

CSIR has been an ac­tive player in as­sist­ing elec­tron­ics, in­stru­men­ta­tion and process con­trol in­dus­try in tech­nol­ogy de­vel­op­ment, ab­sorp­tion, upgra­da­tion and di­ver­si­fi­ca­tion. Ksheer scan­ner for quick de­tec­tion of di­verse adul­ter­ants in milk, use­ful for dairy and milk co­op­er­a­tives has been de­vel­oped and de­ployed at a large scale in the coun­try as an ef­fec­tive mea­sure to en­sure high qual­ity milk. Con­fo­cal mi­cro­scope based on su­per­con­tin­uum light source for high res­o­lu­tion scan­ning is an­other sig­nif­i­cant con­tri­bu­tion. Ad­vanced earth­quake warn­ing sys­tem de­vel­oped by CSIR is be­ing used by Delhi Metro.

CSIR sup­ports the Health Sec­tor with its low-cost in­no­va­tions in the ar­eas of med­i­cal di­ag­nos­tics/de­vices based on mi­cro sen­sors, novel pros­thetic aids and ro­botic aids for surgery. Fur­ther, in the agro sec­tor, crop health mon­i­tor­ing, agro-pro­duce gra­da­tion, non­de­struc­tive qual­ity as­sess­ments and posthar­vest mon­i­tor­ing and con­trol to re­duce losses are some im­por­tant ar­eas for fu­ture de­vel­op­ment. In ad­di­tion, CSIR has a strong sup­port for elec­tron­ics re­lated to pol­lu­tion con­trol de­vices and de­vel­op­ing pho­to­voltaics in the en­ergy sec­tor.

In­fra­struc­ture – Build­ing and Strength­en­ing Na­tional Ca­pac­ity

CSIR has been catalysing the in­fra­struc­ture plan­ning, par­tic­u­larly of the roads, build­ings and bridges by pro­vid­ing an up-to-date knowl­edge base and hu­man re­sources through strate­gic al­liances. It lays special em­pha­sis on the de­vel­op­ment of al­ter­nate con­struc­tion ma­te­ri­als util­is­ing waste, economis­ing on en­ergy, dis­as­ter mit­i­ga­tion, so­lu­tions for af­ford­able hous­ing and pre­cast ferro ce­ment toi­let core unit.

CSIR has de­vel­oped an in­dige­nous sub­sti­tute of Ukraine clay for the ce­ramic tiles, which has re­duced the Ukraine clay re­quire­ment from 20% to about 1%. Over the last few decades, CSIR has con­trib­uted sig­nif­i­cantly in de­vel­op­ing in­no­va­tive so­lu­tions to­wards cost-ef­fec­tive and safe

The ef­forts of TEAM-CSIR are now fully de­voted to high qual­ity in­no­va­tive sci­ence and R&D, which ful­fills the as­pi­ra­tions of so­ci­ety. Our Gov­ern­ment, led by Hon’ble Prime Min­is­ter, who is also the Pres­i­dent of the CSIR So­ci­ety, has en­vi­sioned goals and out­comes for In­dia. We are fully com­mit­ted to these, in step with other Sci­en­tific Wings of the Coun­try Dr. Girish Sahni DG, CSIR and Sec­re­tary, DSIR

Swaraj

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