Manoaj Kumar Jain, Managing Director, Deep Blue Xpress Pvt. Ltd.
a bacterium called Vibrio cholerae. Common sources are Foods and drinks sold by street vendors, vegetables grown with water containing human wastes, raw or undercooked fish and seafood caught in waters polluted with sewage, unpasteurized milk products etc. Symptoms include dry mucous membranes ,( throat, nose, and eyelids), excessive thirst, muscle cramps and may lead to severe complication involving multi organ failure. E.coli bacteria also causes diarrhoea. The bacteria are in human and animal’s stool, hence present in earth, water, air, dust, and insanitary foods. TYPHOID, which gets passed on through contaminated food and water and is caused by a notorious bacterium - Salmonella Typhi. During hot humid weather, this bacterium proliferates in unhygienic stored food & water . MALARIA is caused by certain species of female mosquitoes (Anopheles)bite, Anopheles breed in dirty water. Since, there is a problem of water logging during the rainy season, mosquitoes get conducive conditions to breed . Most deaths are by cerebral malaria caused by P.falciparum, the most dangerous type of malaria. Malaria is characterised by fever, body ache, chills, and sweating. If untreated, it can lead to complications like jaundice, severe anaemia or even liver and kidney failure. Malaria is typically diagnosed by the microscopic examination of blood film, or antigen-based rapid diagnostic tests. DENGUE: Dengue fever is a disease caused by a family of viruses that are transmitted by tiger mosquitoes (Aedes Aegypti). Symptoms of dengue fever include severe joint and muscle pain, swollen lymph nodes, headache, fever, exhaustion, and rash. Severe dengue fever is called Dengue haemorrhagic fever which may cause abdominal pain, haemorrhage (bleeding), and circulatory collapse (shock). It is important to remember that the dengue mosquito usually bites only in the day time, mostly below knee and elbow. They breeds in clean, fresh water and stays in darker places like below the table or behind curtains. Leptospirosis During monsoons, great care should be taken to wear appropriate clothes and leather shoes, as any skin contact with dirty infected(with Leptospira) water or soil (with rat urine) lead to a serious disease known as leptospirosis, commonly known as Weil's syndrome. It may manifest as jaundice, kidney failure,fever etc,.
Taking precautions before the onset of a disease enables us to reduce illnesses. Ensure that there are no breeding places for mosquitoes around the house. Potholes if present should be filled with soil.Tyres/ tubes should always be disposed in a proper way as they also add up being a breeding home for mosquitoes. Coolers if used at home must be dried properly once a week. Use mosquito repellents and nets as dengue transmitting mosquitoes usually bite during day time -either early morning or late evening, while those that cause malaria tend to bite at night. Clothes( full) should cover the skin so that mosquitoes can't bite. Washing your hands for 20 seconds before eating, before cooking and after defecation is strongly recommended. Since food gets spoilt quickly due to variance in temperature, make sure that leftover food is refrigerated at the earliest. Food is supposed to be reheated to more than 84°C before consuming as germs gets inactivated at this level of temperatures. Ensure you drink water which is boiled at a temperature of 100 degree centigrade minimum for 10 minutes and cooled properly, in open ,before storing. One must ensure that they do not get wet in the rain or stay in wet clothes for a long period. Increase the consumption of redyellow fruits, vegetables,dry fruits,nuts and balanced diet to boost immunity. Avoid exposure to viral infections like flu and chickenpox. These are spread usually at common places, schools and offices etc where mass gathering is present. One should maintain a minimum distance of 3 to 5 feet in case there is any diseased person. Use separate hand towels to avoid the transmission of disease causing virus/ bacteria. Cover your mouth and nose with a handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. Painkillers like Aspirin is avoided in viral diseases like dengue and chikungunya ,as they can lead to bleeding and deaths. Supportive measures with adequate fluid intake, are the treatment. Wear leather boots while stepping out of your home to avoid contact with contaminated soil or water. If you have pets, make sure you take care of their hygienic requirements and clean them frequently. Any kind of cuts or bruises should be treated immediately, since hookworm, tetanus, mycetoma causing worms can enter through injured skin. Immunization should be done with Hepatitis A, Typhoid , chicken pox,Vaxigrip (H1N1) vaccines before monsoon, to children, elderly, with comorbid diseases and immunocompromised persons. Most monsoon diseases can be prevented by awareness, lifestyle modification, healthy dietary habits, cessation of smoking and alcohol, maintaining environmental hygiene, vaccination and last but not least positive thinking.