Manoaj Ku­mar Jain, Manag­ing Di­rec­tor, Deep Blue Xpress Pvt. Ltd.

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a bac­terium called Vib­rio cholerae. Com­mon sources are Foods and drinks sold by street ven­dors, veg­eta­bles grown with wa­ter con­tain­ing hu­man wastes, raw or un­der­cooked fish and seafood caught in wa­ters pol­luted with sewage, un­pas­teur­ized milk prod­ucts etc. Symptoms in­clude dry mu­cous mem­branes ,( throat, nose, and eye­lids), ex­ces­sive thirst, mus­cle cramps and may lead to se­vere com­pli­ca­tion in­volv­ing multi or­gan fail­ure. E.coli bac­te­ria also causes di­ar­rhoea. The bac­te­ria are in hu­man and an­i­mal’s stool, hence present in earth, wa­ter, air, dust, and in­san­i­tary foods. TYPHOID, which gets passed on through con­tam­i­nated food and wa­ter and is caused by a no­to­ri­ous bac­terium - Sal­mo­nella Typhi. Dur­ing hot hu­mid weather, this bac­terium pro­lif­er­ates in un­hy­gienic stored food & wa­ter . MALARIA is caused by cer­tain species of fe­male mos­qui­toes (Anophe­les)bite, Anophe­les breed in dirty wa­ter. Since, there is a prob­lem of wa­ter log­ging dur­ing the rainy sea­son, mos­qui­toes get con­ducive con­di­tions to breed . Most deaths are by cere­bral malaria caused by P.fal­ci­parum, the most dan­ger­ous type of malaria. Malaria is char­ac­terised by fever, body ache, chills, and sweat­ing. If un­treated, it can lead to com­pli­ca­tions like jaun­dice, se­vere anaemia or even liver and kid­ney fail­ure. Malaria is typ­i­cally di­ag­nosed by the mi­cro­scopic ex­am­i­na­tion of blood film, or anti­gen-based rapid di­ag­nos­tic tests. DENGUE: Dengue fever is a dis­ease caused by a fam­ily of viruses that are trans­mit­ted by tiger mos­qui­toes (Aedes Ae­gypti). Symptoms of dengue fever in­clude se­vere joint and mus­cle pain, swollen lymph nodes, headache, fever, ex­haus­tion, and rash. Se­vere dengue fever is called Dengue haem­or­rhagic fever which may cause ab­dom­i­nal pain, haem­or­rhage (bleed­ing), and cir­cu­la­tory col­lapse (shock). It is im­por­tant to re­mem­ber that the dengue mos­quito usu­ally bites only in the day time, mostly be­low knee and el­bow. They breeds in clean, fresh wa­ter and stays in darker places like be­low the ta­ble or be­hind cur­tains. Lep­tospiro­sis Dur­ing mon­soons, great care should be taken to wear ap­pro­pri­ate clothes and leather shoes, as any skin con­tact with dirty in­fected(with Lep­tospira) wa­ter or soil (with rat urine) lead to a se­ri­ous dis­ease known as lep­tospiro­sis, com­monly known as Weil's syn­drome. It may man­i­fest as jaun­dice, kid­ney fail­ure,fever etc,.

Man­age­ment

Tak­ing pre­cau­tions be­fore the on­set of a dis­ease en­ables us to re­duce ill­nesses. En­sure that there are no breed­ing places for mos­qui­toes around the house. Pot­holes if present should be filled with soil.Tyres/ tubes should al­ways be dis­posed in a proper way as they also add up be­ing a breed­ing home for mos­qui­toes. Cool­ers if used at home must be dried prop­erly once a week. Use mos­quito re­pel­lents and nets as dengue trans­mit­ting mos­qui­toes usu­ally bite dur­ing day time -ei­ther early morn­ing or late evening, while those that cause malaria tend to bite at night. Clothes( full) should cover the skin so that mos­qui­toes can't bite. Wash­ing your hands for 20 sec­onds be­fore eat­ing, be­fore cook­ing and af­ter defe­ca­tion is strongly rec­om­mended. Since food gets spoilt quickly due to vari­ance in tem­per­a­ture, make sure that left­over food is re­frig­er­ated at the ear­li­est. Food is sup­posed to be re­heated to more than 84°C be­fore con­sum­ing as germs gets in­ac­ti­vated at this level of tem­per­a­tures. En­sure you drink wa­ter which is boiled at a tem­per­a­ture of 100 de­gree centi­grade min­i­mum for 10 min­utes and cooled prop­erly, in open ,be­fore stor­ing. One must en­sure that they do not get wet in the rain or stay in wet clothes for a long pe­riod. In­crease the con­sump­tion of redyel­low fruits, veg­eta­bles,dry fruits,nuts and bal­anced diet to boost im­mu­nity. Avoid ex­po­sure to vi­ral in­fec­tions like flu and chick­en­pox. Th­ese are spread usu­ally at com­mon places, schools and of­fices etc where mass gath­er­ing is present. One should main­tain a min­i­mum dis­tance of 3 to 5 feet in case there is any dis­eased per­son. Use sep­a­rate hand tow­els to avoid the trans­mis­sion of dis­ease caus­ing virus/ bac­te­ria. Cover your mouth and nose with a hand­ker­chief while cough­ing or sneez­ing. Painkillers like Aspirin is avoided in vi­ral dis­eases like dengue and chikun­gunya ,as they can lead to bleed­ing and deaths. Sup­port­ive mea­sures with ad­e­quate fluid in­take, are the treat­ment. Wear leather boots while step­ping out of your home to avoid con­tact with con­tam­i­nated soil or wa­ter. If you have pets, make sure you take care of their hy­gienic re­quire­ments and clean them fre­quently. Any kind of cuts or bruises should be treated im­me­di­ately, since hook­worm, tetanus, myce­toma caus­ing worms can en­ter through in­jured skin. Im­mu­niza­tion should be done with Hep­ati­tis A, Typhoid , chicken pox,Vax­i­grip (H1N1) vac­cines be­fore mon­soon, to chil­dren, el­derly, with co­mor­bid dis­eases and im­muno­com­pro­mised per­sons. Most mon­soon dis­eases can be pre­vented by aware­ness, life­style mod­i­fi­ca­tion, healthy di­etary habits, ces­sa­tion of smok­ing and al­co­hol, main­tain­ing en­vi­ron­men­tal hy­giene, vac­ci­na­tion and last but not least pos­i­tive think­ing.

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