Tiny Re­ac­tors - Aim for big role

Process In­ten­si­fi­ca­tion (PI) has promised many things but has it ful­filled its prom­ises? When look­ing at re­ac­tor tech­nol­ogy, the an­swer is a def­i­nite - Yes.

Chemical Industry Digest - - What’s In? - Rocky Costello, R. C. Costello & As­so­ciates, Inc

Rocky Costello, R. C. Costello & As­so­ciates, Inc In this ar­ti­cle the au­thor em­pha­sizes on how process in­ten­si­fi­ca­tion has im­proved the re­ac­tor tech­nol­ogy with dif­fer­ent ex­am­ples.

The heart of chem­i­cal pro­cess­ing has al­ways been the re­ac­tor, with the Con­tin­u­ous Stirred Tank Re­ac­tor (CSTR) long dom­i­nat­ing con­tin­u­ous pro­duc­tion. The CSTR was first used more than 300 years ago in the pro­cess­ing of gold ore, but maybe its time is up. PI is en­ter­ing the scene in a big way; a num­ber of new spe­cialty re­ac­tors have ap­peared, bring­ing both tech­no­log­i­cal ad­vances and ad­di­tional man­u­fac­tur­ers into the mar­ket.

The term Process In­ten­si­fi­ca­tion was orig­i­nally coined at Im­pe­rial Chem­i­cal In­dus­tries in the U.K. in the 1970s. Put sim­ply, PI in­volves the minia­tur­iza­tion of unit op­er­a­tions. This minia­tur­iza­tion should bring:

• re­duced en­ergy use;

• de­creased cap­i­tal ex­pen­di­ture;

• lower plant pro­file (height);

• smaller plant foot­print (area);

• en­vi­ron­men­tal ad­van­tages; and

• safety ben­e­fits.

Biodiesel gives process in­ten­si­fi­ca­tion a push

Re­cent in­ter­est in al­ter­na­tive en­ergy sources such as biodiesel has helped fuel at­ten­tion on PI. Why? The biodiesel re­ac­tion typ­i­cally is a trans­es­ter­i­fi­ca­tion of soy­bean oil, canola oil or palm oil (triglyc­erides) and methanol, pro­duc­ing fatty acid methyl es­ters or biodiesel and a glyc­erol byprod­uct. This re­ac­tion isn’t very exother­mic and methanol isn’t very sol­u­ble in the soy­bean oil. The mi­cromix­ing pro­duced by PI re­ac­tors dra­mat­i­cally over­comes the in­sol­u­bil­ity is­sue and in­creases re­ac­tion rates. This ul­ti­mately leads to very small re­ac­tors be­cause the res­i­dence time can be dra­mat­i­cally re­duced. Kreido Lab­o­ra­to­ries has pro­duced biodiesel at res­i­dence times of 0.5 sec.

The Hy­dro Dy­nam­ics SPR also speeds up the con­tin­u­ous trans­es­ter­i­fi­ca­tion re­ac­tion time and al­lows ex­ist­ing batch re­ac­tion pro­cesses to more than dou­ble pro­duc­tion rates or, be­cause the re­ac­tion oc­curs in­stan­ta­neously, to achieve true con­tin­u­ous pro­cess­ing. The SPR re­port­edly has demon­strated sig­nif­i­cant yield in­creases and an im­prove­ment in prod­uct qual­ity, hold-

ing to­tal glyc­erin to less than 0.05%. The re­ac­tor also en­ables use of lower-priced oil feed stocks. Hy­dro Dy­nam­ics has pro­duced biodiesel with res­i­dences times of less than 2 sec.

When build­ing a new plant, process equip­ment typ­i­cally rep­re­sents ap­prox­i­mately 20% of the cap­i­tal costs, with struc­tural steel, pip­ing, con­duit, wire and in­stru­men­ta­tion ac­count­ing for much of the bal­ance. Smaller unit op­er­a­tions made pos­si­ble by PI trans­late into a more-com­pact plant, lower weight, and less struc­tural steel, pip­ing, con­duit and wire. The re­duced weight of the equip­ment may even al­low sav­ings on con­crete foun­da­tions. Over­all, PI means less-ex­pen­sive plants with smaller foot­prints. In ad­di­tion, many process-in­ten­si­fied plants are amenable to con­struc­tion on skids, which can lower costs even fur­ther.

De­creased costs aren’t enough, though, to guar­an­tee ac­cep­tance of units so dif­fer­ent from con­ven­tional ones. With re­ac­tors typ­i­cally con­sid­ered the heart of the plant, com­pa­nies also want in­creased re­ac­tor per­for­mance. Here, the new PI re­ac­tors pro­vide a num­ber of ad­van­tages. They cut res­i­dence times, boost re­ac­tion rates, min­i­mize side re­ac­tions, and re­duce en­ergy-in­ten­sive down­stream pro­cess­ing steps such as dis­til­la­tion and ex­trac­tion. In ad­di­tion, the units can dra­mat­i­cally de­crease the vol­umes of ex­plo­sive, haz­ardous or toxic com­pounds in the process.

With many re­ac­tions, heat-trans­fer, mass-trans­fer or mixing lim­i­ta­tions con­trol the re­ac­tion rate rather than the fun­da­men­tal ki­net­ics, ex­plains Proten­sive, New­cas­tle upon Tyne, U.K., a de­vel­oper of PI units. An exother­mic re­ac­tion may re­quire a cou­ple of hours to carry out in a batch re­ac­tor not be­cause of any ki­netic con­straint, but be­cause of the time nec­es­sary to re­move the heat of re­ac­tion, adds the com­pany. PI re­ac­tors of­fer a way to over­come such lim­i­ta­tions.

Now let’s look at five com­mer­cially avail­able PI re­ac­tion sys­tems to see how they work and the ben­e­fits they of­fer. We’ll also touch upon two es­tab­lished PI tech­nolo­gies re­ac­tive dis­til­la­tion and static mixing.

Spin­ning tube

Kreido Lab­o­ra­to­ries, Ca­mar­illo, Calif., of­fers the Spin­ning Tube in a Tube (STT) re­ac­tor. This unit in­duces so-called Cou­ette Flow by mixing re­ac­tants in a nar­row an­nu­lar gap be­tween a sta­tion­ary sta­tor and a rapidly ro­tat­ing, con­cen­tric, in­ter­nal ro­tor (Fig­ure 1) so that the re­ac­tants move as a co­her­ent thin film in a high shear field, says the com­pany.

This very high shear field ex­tends over the to­tal length of the tube. Flow through the an­nu­lar space is ac­tu­ally in the lam­i­nar range. This unit is very com­pact (Fig­ure 2) and can eas­ily per­form gas/liq­uid and liq­uid/liq­uid re­ac­tions.

The STT re­ac­tor ac­cel­er­ates the rates of chem­i­cal re­ac­tions by up to three or­ders of mag­ni­tude, in­creases con­ver­sions and yields, con­trols the qual­ity of pro­duc­tion in real-time, low­ers costs, and dra­mat­i­cally de­creases the time re­quired for man­u­fac­tur­ing scale-up, claims the com­pany.

Some ap­pli­ca­tions in­clude: se­lec­tive ox­i­da­tion, se­lec­tive hy­dro­gena­tion, es­ter­i­fi­ca­tion, trans­es­ter­i­fi­ca­tion, saponi­fi­ca­tion, hy­drosi­ly­la­tion, con­den­sa­tion re­ac­tions and prepa­ra­tion of ionic liq­uids.

The trans­es­ter­i­fi­ca­tion re­ac­tion of soy­bean oil and methanol for biodiesel pro­duc­tion is be­ing done at a res­i­dence time of 0.5 sec­onds. Kreido of­fers what it calls a com­plete pipe-to-pipe biodiesel pro­duc­tion unit, the STT 30G.

Scaleup in­volves hold­ing shear con­stant: D1πω1/d1 = D2πω2/d2

where D is the di­am­e­ter of the ro­tor in mil­lime­ters, ω is the rev­o­lu­tions per sec­ond of the ro­tor, and d is the gap mil­lime­ters. If d1 = d2 then, for any change in di­am­e­ter, the new ω can be cal­cu­lated.

Spin­ning disk

Proten­sive makes the Spin­ning Disk Re­ac­tor (SDR), which pro­vides plug flow and in­tense mixing while re­sist­ing foul­ing. The SDR re­lies on high cen­trifu­gal ac­cel­er­a­tion over a disk sur­face to over­come in­ter­fa­cial mass-trans­fer lim­i­ta­tions that thwart con­ven­tional pro­cesses (Fig­ure 3).

The gen­er­a­tion of very thin films, typ­i­cally frac­tions of a mil­lime­ter down to a few mi­crons thick, through con­trolled flow rate and disc speed or RPM can de­liver sur­face-to-vol­ume ra­tios tai­lored to pro­cess­ing re­quire- ments, rang­ing from 1,000s of m2/m3 for high vis­cos­ity ma­te­ri­als such as poly­mer melts, down to 100,000s m2/ m3 for low vis­cos­ity sys­tems typ­i­cal of a wide range of chem­i­cal syn­the­sis routes.

The SDR boasts an over­all heat trans­fer co­ef­fi­cient typ­i­cally five to 10 times greater than achieved by most heat-trans­fer de­vices, says the com­pany, en­abling small discs with low process fluid in­ven­tory to han­dle sig­nif­i­cant ther­mal du­ties. Fig­ure 4 shows a lab­o­ra­tory unit.

Fast exother­mic re­ac­tions can be con­ducted in the thin tur­bu­lent film on a spin­ning disc re­ac­tor us­ing much higher tem­per­a­tures than could be con­tem­plated in stirred tanks. This is be­cause the su­pe­rior heat­trans­fer per­for­mance of the unit care­fully con­trols tem­per­a­tures, and com­pletes re­ac­tions in a res­i­dence time of just 1-2 sec.

The re­ac­tion to pro­duce CaCO via CO ab­sorp­tion

3 2 is com­pleted within 1 sec., says the com­pany. The high sur­face-to-vol­ume ra­tio can be used both to al­low rapid trans­port be­tween gas and liq­uids for sim­ple op­er­a­tions such as strip­ping liq­uids of volatiles, scrub­bing gases or for more-com­plex gas/liq­uid re­ac­tions.

For crys­tal­liza­tion and pre­cip­i­ta­tion, the va­porstrip­ping char­ac­ter­is­tics of the SDR, aris­ing from the thin tur­bu­lent liq­uid film on the disk sur­face, com­bined with the re­ac­tor’s plug flow char­ac­ter­is­tics, are said to al­low ex­cel­lent con­trol over par­ti­cle size se­lec­tion and at­tain­ment of a rel­a­tively nar­row par­ti­cle-size dis­tri­bu­tion.

The re­ac­tor also re­port­edly can re­move sol­vents or monomers left trapped in bun­dled poly­mer chains af­ter poly­mer pro­duc­tion to very low lev­els dif­fi­cult to achieve in tra­di­tional equip­ment even with the use of vac­uum and tem­per­a­ture.

Con­trolled cav­i­ta­tion

Hy­dro Dy­nam­ics, Inc., Rome, Ga., har­nesses cav­i­ta­tion in its Shock­Wave Power Re­ac­tor (SPR) to pro­vide in­creased mass trans­fer and scale-free heat­ing. Ba­si­cally, the shock­waves and re­sult­ing mi­cro­scopic bub­bles cause in­tense mixing as well as a clean­ing ac­tion. Be­cause heat­ing takes place in the ma­te­rial, not by con­duc­tion through metal, there are no hot and cold spots.

The heart of the SPR tech­nol­ogy is a spe­cial­ized spin­ning ro­tor with cav­i­ties. The spin­ning ac­tion gen­er­ates hy­dro­dy­namic cav­i­ta­tion within the cav­i­ties away from the metal sur­faces. This cav­i­ta­tion is con­trolled by RPM. Thus, there is no dam­age to the equip-

ment. Eight dif­fer­ent pa­ram­e­ters de­ter­mine op­ti­mum hole lo­ca­tion, depth, an­gle, lay­out, etc. The SPR looks like a pump from a ca­sual ob­ser­va­tion (Fig­ure 5); how­ever, that is where the sim­i­lar­ity ends.

The SPR can pro­vide: re­duced re­ac­tion time, uni­form tem­per­a­ture with no solid scale build-up, fewer side re­ac­tions, and im­proved yield and qual­ity.

The re­ac­tor suits both batch and con­tin­u­ous pro­cesses, and can pro­vide up to 150-mil­lion-gal/yr pro­cess­ing ca­pac­ity in a sin­gle unit. In ad­di­tion, the unit can be eas­ily retro­fit­ted into ex­ist­ing op­er­a­tions.

The de­vice al­ready is used in nu­mer­ous com­mer­cial ap­pli­ca­tions, in­clud­ing the mixing of con­sumer prod­ucts, food pas­teur­iza­tion/ho­mog­e­niza­tion, gel and gum hy­dra­tion, scale-free heat­ing of chem­i­cals, and con­cen­tra­tion of sol­vents.

The unit also can serve as a su­pe­rior gas/liq­uid mixer, han­dling gas-to-liq­uid vol­ume ra­tios as high as 5 to 1.

Mi­crochan­nel re­ac­tors

Ve­lo­cys, Plain City, Ohio, uses mi­crochan­nel tech­nol­ogy to dra­mat­i­cally re­duce heat and mass trans­port dis­tances com­monly found in con­ven­tional sys­tems, thus in­creas­ing the rate of heat and mass trans­fer and, in turn, greatly ac­cel­er­at­ing re­ac­tion rates. Fur­ther, as the ef­fi­ciency of con­vert­ing feed­stock ma­te­rial to prod­ucts is strongly gov­erned by the abil­ity to con­trol these chem­i­cal re­ac­tions, which de­pends upon the abil­ity to con­trol re­ac­tion tem­per­a­ture, which in turn is gov­erned by the abil­ity to move heat quickly, the tech­nol­ogy of­ten can in­crease prod­uct yield.

Ve­lo­cys’ chem­i­cal pro­ces­sors fea­ture par­al­lel ar­rays of mi­crochan­nels, with typ­i­cal di­men­sions in the 0.010in. to 0.200-in. range (Fig­ure 6).

This struc­ture is said to al­low use of much more ac­tive cat­a­lysts than con­ven­tional sys­tems, greatly boost­ing the through­put per unit vol­ume. A cat­a­lyst can be teth­ered to the re­ac­tion wall or coated in­side the chan­nels. Over­all sys­tem vol­umes re­port­edly can be re­duced by 10 to 100 fold com­pared to con­ven­tional hard­ware. Fig­ure 7 shows a large-scale, pro­to­type mi­crochan­nel re­ac­tor that will be­gin op­er­at­ing in 2007.

Some of the ap­pli­ca­tions un­der devel­op­ment in­clude:

• hy­dro­gen pro­duc­tion us­ing steam meth­ane re­form­ing;

• high intensity ox­i­da­tion and par­tial-ox­i­da­tion re­ac­tions with im­proved process se­lec­tiv­ity and yield;

• high-per­for­mance emul­si­fi­ca­tion pro­cesses; and

• syn­thetic-fuel pro­duc­tion and methanol syn­the­sis in com­pact units suit­able for land or off­shore in­stal­la­tion.

Steam re­form­ing high­lights the power of the ap­proach. About 95% of the hy­dro­gen pro­duced to­day in the U.S. is made by re­form­ing a meth­ane source such as nat­u­ral gas us­ing high-tem­per­a­ture (700°C to 1,000°C) steam. Re­finer­ies are ma­jor pro­duc­ers of hy­dro­gen, us­ing it pri­mar­ily for their hy­drotreaters and hy­dro­c­rack­ers. In the re­form­ing process, meth­ane en­dother­mi­cally re­acts with steam un­der 3 25-bar pres­sure in the pres­ence of a cat­a­lyst to pro­duce hy­dro­gen, car­bon monox­ide and a rel­a­tively small amount of car­bon diox­ide.

With the mi­crochan­nel tech­nol­ogy, hot com­bus­tion gases push the re­ac­tion for­ward, with the hot gases flow­ing in chan­nel lay­ers al­ter­nat­ing with the re­ac­tor chan­nel lay­ers. The hy­dro­gen is then pu­ri­fied in a pres­sure swing ad­sorp­tion unit. Plant size is re­duced by 90% com­pared to con­ven­tional re­form­ers, and the ap­proach boasts a 30% sav­ings in cap­i­tal cost, higher ther­mal ef­fi­ciency and lower emis­sions, ac­cord­ing to the com­pany.

Scale-up is eas­ily ac­com­plished by adding more lay­ers of chan­nels. Once a plant is in op­er­a­tion, its ca­pac­ity can be in­creased sim­ply by in­stalling ad­di­tional lay­ers of chan­nels.

Os­cil­lat­ing flow

Cam­bridge Re­ac­tor De­sign, Cot­ten­ham, U.K., of­fers the Os­cil­lat­ing Flow Re­ac­tor, which takes ad­van­tage of the com­pany’s Os­cil­lat­ing Flow Mixing (OFM) tech­nol­ogy (Fig­ure 8).

OFM com­bines fluid os­cil­la­tions with baf­fle in­serts to pro­vide highly ef­fec­tive mixing in tube re­ac­tors. Mixing be­hav­ior is con­trolled dy­nam­i­cally by os­cil­la­tion intensity or ge­o­met­ri­cally by baf­fle de­sign. While the tech­nol­ogy can be ap­plied to batch op­er­a­tions, it is said to be par­tic­u­larly suited to con­tin­u­ous pro­cess­ing.

The stan­dard re­ac­tor con­sists of an os­cil­la­tor base and a re­ac­tor tube top sec­tion (Fig­ure 9). A nu­tat­ing cam mech­a­nism driven by an elec­tric mo­tor and lin­ear ac­tu­a­tor con­trols the am­pli­tude and fre­quency of op­er­a­tion. A pair of pis­tons driven off the two cams pro­vides os­cil­la­tions in an in­verted “U” ar­range­ment of re­ac­tor tubes. All of the vari­a­tions are achieved by elec­tronic con­trol of the mo­tors.

Process tubes are added via top plate ex­ten­sions, each of which takes two re­ac­tor tubes. In this man­ner, the unit can be op­er­ated as four-pass, six-pass, etc., as re­quired to in­crease re­ac­tor vol­ume or res­i­dence time.

Typ­i­cal ap­pli­ca­tions in­clude biodiesel, sus­pen­sion poly­mer­iza­tions and liq­uid/liq­uid dis­per­sions.

Re­ac­tive dis­til­la­tion

PI doesn’t nec­es­sar­ily have to in­volve cut­ting-edge me­chan­i­cal de­vel­op­ments. An­other, long-es­tab­lished form of PI is re­ac­tive dis­til­la­tion, which com­bines a re­ac­tor and dis­til­la­tion col­umn. The tech­nique typ­i­cally is used with re­versible, liq­uid-phase re­ac­tions. For many such re­ac­tions, in­clud­ing es­ter­i­fi­ca­tions, trans­es­ter­i­fi­ca­tions, hy­drol­y­ses, ac­etal­iza­tions and am­i­na­tions’ byprod­uct for­ma­tion lim­its the amount of prod­uct made. Re­ac­tive dis­til­la­tion al­lows re­moval of the byprod­uct, thus shift­ing re­ac­tion equi­lib­rium and lead­ing to more prod­uct. Other types of re­ac­tions that could ben­e­fit from re­ac­tive dis­til­la­tion in­clude: alky­la­tion/transalky­la­tion/dealky­la­tion, iso­mer­iza­tion and chlo­ri­na­tion.

Re­ac­tion com­po­nents are fed coun­ter­cur­rent into a dis­til­la­tion col­umn. Then, the prod­uct and byprod­uct can be sep­a­rated by dis­til­la­tion. Some re­ac­tions re­quire place­ment of cat­a­lysts in­side the col­umn e.g., via struc­tured pack­ing coated with the ap­pro­pri­ate cat­a­lyst, trays con­tain­ing pil­lows filled with cat­a­lyst par­ti­cles or pil­lows filled with cat­a­lyst par­ti­cles rolled into bales.

Fig­ure 10 shows an es­ter­i­fi­ca­tion re­ac­tion for a high­boil­ing car­boxylic acid be­ing added at the top of the re­ac­tive dis­til­la­tion col­umn and a lower-boil­ing point alcohol be­ing added at the bot­tom. Byprod­uct wa­ter comes off the top of the col­umn and the prod­uct es­ter comes off the bot­tom.

We ex­pect in­stal­la­tions us­ing re­ac­tive dis­til­la­tion to con­tinue to grow at a mod­er­ate pace in this decade.

Static mix­ers

An­other tra­di­tional form of PI also gar­ner­ing in­creas­ing in­ter­est re­lies on the use of so-called static or mo­tion­less mix­ers as re­ac­tors ei­ther as sin­gle units or in bun­dles with a jacket.

Chem­i­cal re­ac­tions in the lam­i­nar fluid-flow range (be­low a Reynolds num­ber of 2,000) are pos­si­ble with a Con­tin­u­ous Flow Re­ac­tor (CFR) de­vel­oped by R. C. Costello & As­so­ciates (Fig­ure 11).

The Model CFR-T con­sists of a 3/8-in.-di­am­e­ter Type-316 stain­less steel tube with mixing el­e­ments that di­vide the flow at the be­gin­ning of each el­e­ment. Sub­se­quent stretch­ing and fold­ing pro­duces a ra­dial mo­tion of the high-ve­loc­ity core re­gions out­ward to­ward the wall of the re­ac­tor, which has an in­side di­am­e­ter of about 0.20 in. With­out the el­e­ments, flow clearly would be lam­i­nar but with them in­tense mixing oc­curs, en­abling liq­uid/liq­uid and gas/liq­uid re­ac­tions to oc­cur.

A bench-scale de­vice is of­fered with 34 mixing el­e­ments, which means the liq­uid con­tents is split and folded 234 (or more than 17 bil­lion) times af­ter pass­ing through the CFR.

For mul­ti­ple units in series, BHR Group, Cran­field, U.K., of­fers the FlexRe­ac­tor, which looks sim­i­lar to a heat ex­changer with static mix­ers in each tube. The unit can be re-piped with sim­ple U-tube con­nec­tions to have mul­ti­ple passes in series or par­al­lel op­er­a­tion. Heat­ing or cool­ing is eas­ily achieved with the FlexRe­ac­tor.

Vari­able In­let Vane Damper

Vari­able In­let Vane (VIV) Dam­pers are de­signed with me­chan­i­cal prin­ci­ple of ad­just­ment. In­let guide vanes are syn­chronously ad­justable in the same an­gu­lar po­si­tion by a con­nect­ing el­e­ment. Ad­just­ment can be made ei­ther au­to­mat­i­cally via an ad­just­ing el­e­ment from pulse gen­er­a­tor by hand.

Fea­tures:

• En­ergy Sav­ings with fans uti­liz­ing vari­able in­let vanes.

• VIV Dam­pers are of­ten used for ca­pac­ity mod­u­la­tion. They give ac­cu­rate mod­u­la­tion and power sav­ings over other styles of dam­pers at re­duced air flow.

• When an in­let vane is par­tially closed, each blade di­rects the air into the wheel in the di­rec­tion of ro­ta­tion and so the air is pre­spun. This brings about a re­duc­tion in the Ca­pac­ity, Static Pres­sure and BHP. The amount of BHP sav­ings at re­duced ca­pac­ity is de­ter­mined by the type of sys­tem and type of fan­vane com­bi­na­tion.

• For ev­ery in­let vane po­si­tion there is dif­fer­ent Ca­pac­ity V/s Static curve and Ca­pac­ity V/s Brake Horse­power (BHP) curve gen­er­ated by the fan.

• VIV Dam­pers are de­signed with me­chan­i­cal prin­ci­ple of ad­just­ment.

• In­let Guide vanes are Sy­chronously ad­justable in the same an­gu­lar pos­tion by a con­nect­ing el­e­ment.

• Ad­just­ment can be made ei­ther au­to­mat­i­cally via an ad­just­ing el­e­ment from pulse gen­er­a­tor or by hand.

For more de­tails con­tact: Va­cu­nair En­gi­neer­ing Co Pvt Ltd Ahmed­abad Phone: +91792290771-2-3 Email: info@va­cu­nair.com Web­site: va­cu­nair.com

GKD: process belts for phos­phoric acid pro­duc­tion

Whether phos­pho­rous gyp­sum or FGDP gyp­sum de­wa­ter­ing, cool­ing lu­bri­cant fil­tra­tion, or process wa­ter treat­ment: the fil­tra­tion ef­fi­ciency, pro­duc­tiv­ity, and process re­li­a­bil­ity of con­tin­u­ous vac­uum belt fil­ter sys­tems rep­re­sent key suc­cess pa­ram­e­ters in in­creas­ingly dis­cern­ing mar­kets. With its VACUBELT® fil­ter belts de­vel­oped for spe­cific pro­cesses, GKD of­fers prod­ucts that have been proven world­wide for these ap­pli­ca­tions. Their spe­cial mesh de­sign com­bines high fil­tra­tion ef­fi­ciency with op­ti­mum cake dis­charge and ex­cel­lent clean­ing prop­er­ties. High air per­me­abil­ity and a low clog­ging ten­dency un­der­line the per­for­mance. The rugged belts made of polyester monofil­a­ments are ca­pa­ble of han­dling the high me­chan­i­cal, ther­mal, and chem­i­cal stresses that oc­cur dur­ing the process and also ex­cel through their high de­gree of lat­eral sta­bil­ity. Track­ing sta­bil­ity and a long ser­vice life are the keys to the suc­cess of this prod­uct range.

Tai­lored specif­i­cally for phos­pho­rous gyp­sum de­wa­ter­ing

A spe­cial pro­duc­tion method qual­i­fies the high­per­for­mance VACUBELT® fil­ter belts for phos­pho­rous gyp­sum de­wa­ter­ing, whereby each belt is ther­mally matched in­di­vid­u­ally to the re­spec­tive gyp­sum and process con­di­tions. Man­u­fac­tured in­di­vid­u­ally and as­sem­bled on par­al­lel rollers, the belts guar­an­tee 100% di­rec­tional sta­bil­ity. Thanks to this op­ti­mum con­trol­la­bil­ity, this belt type is char­ac­ter­ized by a re­duced ten­dency to form creases. The par­tic­u­larly flat seam also con­trib­utes to a has­sle­free process, as its very low aper­ture re­duces sig­nif­i­cantly par­ti­cle pen­e­tra­tion.

Proven for FGDP gyp­sum de­wa­ter­ing

The VACUBELT® fil­ter belt 2015 has al­ready proven its worth in the field of FGDP gyp­sum de­wa­ter­ing over many years. Whether in new sys­tems or retrofitting ex­ist­ing power plants, the belt made of pure polyester monofil­a­ments meets the strictest re­quire­ments. Fast de­wa­ter­ing and ro­bust trans­verse sta­bil­ity are the main fac­tors con­tribut­ing to its su­pe­ri­or­ity. Dur­ing the FILTECH fair, it be­came clear that the need for more ef­fi­cient gyp­sum de­wa­ter­ing in the field of flue gas desul­fu­r­iza­tion, and thereby in­ter­est in this belt type, is still on the rise - par­tic­u­larly in South Africa and In­dia.

Nu­mer­ous users and well-known equip­ment man­u­fac­tur­ers dis­cussed con­crete is­sues re­gard­ing the de­sign and range of po­ten­tial ap­pli­ca­tions of the hor­i­zon­tal fil­ter belts with the GKD ex­perts. Process Belt Di­vi­sion Man­ager, Michael Seel­ert, there­fore re­flects on the trade fair ap­pear­ance with a sense of sat­is­fac­tion: “FILTECH was a real suc­cess for us.” He also be­lieves that the ex­cel­lent net­work­ing op­por­tu­ni­ties are one of the most im­por­tant as­pects of this trade fair. “We were able to make new and promis­ing con­tacts and also wel­come back vis­i­tors look­ing for more in­depth in­for­ma­tion.”

Phenomenex in­tro­duced bioZen™ Series for char­ac­ter­i­za­tion of bio­ther­a­peu­tics

Phenomenex Inc., a global leader in the re­search and man­u­fac­ture of ad­vanced tech­nolo­gies for the sep­a­ra­tion sci­ences, in­tro­duced bioZen – a new series of LC so­lu­tions for biosep­a­ra­tions in phar­ma­ceu­ti­cal, bio­phar­ma­ceu­ti­cal and aca­demic re­search. The series en­com­passes both proven and en­tirely new me­dia span­ning two par­ti­cle plat­forms – core-shell and ther­mally mod­i­fied fully por­ous – along with new bio­com­pat­i­ble ti­ta­nium hard­ware. The ini­tial prod­uct line fea­tured seven chemistries for the UHPLC and HPLC char­ac­ter­i­za­tion of bio­ther­a­peu­tics such as mon­o­clonal an­ti­bod­ies, an­ti­body-drug con­ju­gates and biosim­i­lars. The of­fer­ing in­cluded spe­cific LC chemistries for the anal­y­sis of ag­gre­gates and to­tal mAb, in­tact mass and frag­ments, pep­tide map­ping and quan­ti­ta­tion, and gly­can map­ping.

As an added ben­e­fit, all bioZen me­dia, par­ti­cle sizes and phases are avail­able in Phenomenex’s new bio­com­pat­i­ble ti­ta­nium hard­ware, which min­i­mizes se­condary re­ac­tions, car­ry­over and other re­cov­ery is­sues to pro­vide bet­ter over­all re­pro­ducibil­ity than stain­less steel hard­ware. It also min­i­mizes the amount of time typ­i­cally spent on col­umn prim­ing and does not in­ter­fere with pro­tein or pep­tide in­tegrity.

The bioZen ther­mally mod­i­fied fully por­ous me­dia is pro­duced with Phenomenex’s pro­pri­etary post­syn­thetic ther­mal treat­ment process, which im­proves par­ti­cle me­chan­i­cal strength and in­ert­ness, pro­vid­ing sig­nif­i­cantly bet­ter peak shape and fewer un­wanted se­condary in­ter­ac­tions than tra­di­tional LC me­dia. The ther­mally mod­i­fied me­dia pairs well with high­ef­fi­ciency Core-Shell Tech­nol­ogy me­dia which de­liv­ers in­creased res­o­lu­tion and sen­si­tiv­ity in shorter re­ten­tion time win­dows. Both par­ti­cle plat­forms un­dergo strin­gent QC test­ing to en­sure con­sis­tent high qual­ity, while all in­di­vid­ual col­umns have QC pro­to­cols for spe­cific bi­o­logic ap­pli­ca­tions to con­firm prod­uct per­for­mance and re­pro­ducibil­ity.

Si­mon Lo­mas, Se­nior Man­ager of Global Prod­uct Mar­ket­ing for Phenomenex, said “The bioZen series springs from our close work with cus­tomers who wanted a com­pre­hen­sive prod­uct of­fer­ing to cover all of their biosep­a­ra­tions needs. This is an ex­cit­ing and grow­ing port­fo­lio of novel par­ti­cles, chemistries and bio­com­pat­i­ble hard­ware, sup­ported by our in­dus­try gu­rus, that all com­bine to help our cus­tomers over­come the many chal­lenges as­so­ci­ated with the char­ac­ter­i­za­tion of bi­o­log­ics.”

Fig­ure 1. This de­sign pro­duces high shear along en­tire length of tube, ac­cel­er­at­ing re­ac­tion rate.

Fig­ure 2. Com­pact unit can han­dle liq­uid/liq­uid and liq­uid/gas

re­ac­tions.

Fig­ure 3. This small Spin­ning Disk Re­ac­tor can serve as a com­plete mini-devel­op­ment plant.

Fig­ure 4. High cen­trifu­gal ac­cel­er­a­tion over­comes con­ven­tional in­ter­fa­cial mass-trans­fer lim­i­ta­tions.

Fig­ure 7. Large-scale demon­stra­tion unit is slated for op­er­a­tion in the first quar­ter of 2007.

Fig­ure 6. Mi­crochan­nels per­mit use of much more ac­tive cat­a­lysts, which greatly boosts through­put.

Fig­ure 5. Pur­posely gen­er­ated cav­i­ta­tion en­hances mass trans

fer and pro­duces uni­form heat­ing.

Fig­ure 9. Stan­dard de­sign in­cludes an os­cil­la­tor base and a re­ac­tor tube top sec­tion.

Fig­ure 8. Baf­fle ge­om­e­try cou­pled with intensity of os­cil­la­tion pro­duced by pis­tons con­trol mixing be­hav­ior.

Fig­ure 10. This unit pro­duces an es­ter as bot­toms prod­uct, while byprod­uct wa­ter goes over­head.

Fig­ure 11. In­ter­nal el­e­ments fold streams bil­lions of times, pro­vid­ing in­tense mixing.

A spe­cial pro­duc­tion method qual­i­fies the high- Pic­ture 3 © GKD per­for­mance VACUBELT® fil­ter belts from GKD for phos­pho­rous gyp­sum de­wa­ter­ing.

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