Vitamin A and Beta-Carotene
Beta-carotene is a yellow/orange pigment found mostly in fruits and vegetables, especially carrot, mango, papaya, orange, apricot, melon, tomato, pumpkin and spinach. For beta carotene, the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for an adult is 4,800 milligrams/day. The human body converts beta-carotene into vitamin A (retinol) – beta-carotene is a precursor of vitamin A. Here are some of the key health benefits of vitamin A: • It is critical for good vision. • It plays an important role in healthy bone growth. • It is essential for reproduction. • It plays a role in cell division and cell growth. • It supports the immune system. • It supports skin health. Regulations, moisture content in ghee shall not be more than 0.5 per cent; as per Agmark, it shall not be more than 0.3 per cent. • Moisture content in all the brands was less than
0.3 per cent. • Among the cow ghee brands, the lowest moisture content was in Patanjali (0.06 per cent), followed by Mother Dairy (0.07 per cent). Among the desi ghee brands, Nestle Milkmaid (0.06 per cent) had the lowest moisture content. Free Fatty Acid (FFA) as Oleic Acid (% by mass) FFA is the percentage by weight of free acid groups in the oil or fat. Free fatty acids are an indication of hydrolytic rancidity, though other lipid oxidation processes can also produce acids. Free fatty acids shall be a maximum three per cent. • All brands were within the specified limit. Energy Value Energy value is the amount of calories which our body obtains from food. Energy value is expected to be higher in ghee. • Among the tested brands, energy value was highest in Patanjali and Nestle (both 899.46 kcal/100 gm).
The Adulteration and Purity Tests
Baudouin Test This test is to distinguish between desi ghee and vanaspati ghee. It may be noted that ghee adulteration with vanaspati, vegetable oils/fats and animal body fats is a key concern. Results of the Baudouin test shall be negative. • All 14 brands passed the test. Phenolphthalein Test The results are required to be negative. Phenolphthalein is used as indicator to detect possible adulteration in the ghee. • All brands showed negative and thereby cleared