Eat­ing healthy may re­v­erse Type 2 di­a­betes

DNA (Delhi) - - HEALTH -

Washington DC: A very low calo­rie diet may rapidly re­v­erse Type 2 di­a­betes, sug­gests a study that may pro­vide po­ten­tial new drug tar­gets for treat­ing this com­mon chronic dis­ease.

The mice study, pub­lished in the jour­nal Cell Me­tab­o­lism, fo­cused on un­der­stand­ing the mech­a­nisms by which caloric re­stric­tion rapidly re­verses type 2 di­a­betes.

Re­searchers from Yale Univer­sity in the US in­ves­ti­gated the ef­fects of a very low calo­rie diet (VLCD), con­sist­ing of one-quar­ter the nor­mal in­take, on a ro­dent model of type 2 di­a­betes.

Us­ing a novel sta­ble (nat­u­rally oc­cur­ring) iso­tope ap­proach, the re­searchers tracked and cal­cu­lated a num­ber of meta­bolic pro­cesses that con­trib­ute to the in­creased glu­cose pro­duc­tion by the liver.

The method, known as PINTA, al­lowed the re­searchers to per­form a com­pre­hen­sive set of analy­ses of key meta­bolic fluxes within the liver that might con­trib­ute to in­sulin re­sis­tance and in­creased rates of glu­cose pro­duc­tion by the liver — two key pro­cesses that cause in­creased blood-sugar con­cen­tra­tions in di­a­betes.

Us­ing this ap­proach, the re­searchers pin­pointed three ma­jor mech­a­nisms re­spon­si­ble for the VLCD’s dra­matic ef­fect of rapidly low­er­ing blood glu­cose con­cen­tra­tions in the di­a­betic an­i­mals.

In the liver, the VLCD low­ers glu­cose pro­duc­tion by de­creas­ing the con­ver­sion of lac­tate and amino acids into glu­cose, de­creas­ing the rate of liver glyco­gen con­ver­sion to glu­cose, and de­creas­ing fat con­tent, which in turn im­proves the liver’s re­sponse to in­sulin.

Th­ese pos­i­tive ef­fects of the VLCD were ob­served in just three days, re­searchers said.

“Us­ing this ap­proach to com­pre­hen­sively in­ter­ro­gate liver car­bo­hy­drate and fat me­tab­o­lism, we showed that it is a com­bi­na­tion of three mech­a­nisms that is re­spon­si­ble for the rapid re­ver­sal of hy­per­glycemia fol­low­ing a very low calo­rie diet,” said Ger­ald I Shul­man, Pro­fes­sor at the Howard Hughes Med­i­cal In­sti­tute in the US.

The next step for the re­searchers will be to con­firm whether the find­ings can be repli­cated in type 2 di­a­betic pa­tients un­der­go­ing either bariatric surgery or con­sum-

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