Cobalt-rich fer­ro­man­ganese crusts:

Down to Earth - - COVER STORY -

They are formed as man­ganese and iron pre­cip­i­tate in cold sea­wa­ter and get de­posited in lay­ers of up to 25 cen­time­tres thick. They can meet up to 20 per cent of the global cobalt de­mand. Th­ese crusts hold rare earth el­e­ments. Th­ese crusts, at­tached to sur­faces of seamounts, ridges and plateaus, were first tar­geted for ex­plo­ration by In­ter­na­tional Seabed Au­thor­ity. Most of them are in the Pa­cific Ocean, east of Ja­pan and the Mar­i­ana is­lands.

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