Models of flood management
TORONTO AND Region Conservation Flood Management Programme of Canada is considered a model for flood management in urban spaces. In practice since 2011, the programme forms a close link between Canada's Weather Office, Ministry of Natural Resources and local government agencies of the four subdivisions of Toronto—Durham, Peel, Toronto and York. One of the major tasks undertaken is clear and consistent flood warning. Localised warnings help the authorities to convince people to move to secured locations. One major problem that the authorities in Kashmir faced was the inability to convince people of the seriousness of the situation and the need to move to safer places.
The three departments also identify flood-prone areas and undertake mitigation measures to reduce risk. In terms of infrastructure, the Toronto and Region Conservation Authority is mandated to operate and maintain flood control infrastructure across all regions of Toronto, including large dams, channels, flood walls and dykes.
Arizona, a south-western state of the United States, has gone a step ahead to retain the water quality after floods. The Flood Control District is a plan to control flooding in Maricopa County, the worst-affected region of Arizona. The plan is being carried out as per the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Stormwater Programme as part of the Clean Water Act. A guide and awareness manual has been circulated among the public and local authorities on ways to prevent floodwater from entering into the water channels of the area.