A Study on Stress Management in Coromandel Engineering Co. Ltd. Chennai
Stress has been on a rise in this era as science and technology has brought tremendous changes in the life style of people. Stressful situation at work place, disturbs the mental peace, weakens a person psychologically and creates complexities in social and familial relationship. People with a higher percentage of occupational stress may not be satisfied with their job and therefore they will not feel happy working in the organization. It becomes the responsibility of the employing organizations and the individuals to identify the causes of stress at the workplace and make efforts to reduce them for the effectiveness and efficiency of the individuals and the organization itself. In this juncture, the present study is undertaken to address specific problems of coromandel engineering employees related to occupational stress. The results will be helpful to draw up further policy on the related fields and will give information to the top level management and the HR department about where to focus to reduce the stress level.
Keywords: Life style, Stress, Mental peace, Psychological weakness, organization.
WORK RELATED STRESS
Whilst there is little disagreement about the prevalence of stress there is considerable debate about what the word (stress) actually refers to. Stress is the result of an interaction between an individual’s emotional, intellectual, social, and physical resources and the demands on him or her. Indian society is undergoing rapid changes due to many contemporary trends in the form of industrialization, liberalization, modernization, automation etc. Workload has been increased many folds (additional time in their workplace, deadline to finish tasks etc) that creates stress among them. Stress is the adverse reaction which people experience due to excessive pressure or other types of demands placed on them (Water & Ussery, 2007). In simple words, stress occurs when external demands exceed the internal capabilities of a person. A person encounters many stressors during course of his work. Researchers have classified occupational stress in different ways. Physical environment, role stressors, organizational structure, job characteristics, relationship with others, career development and work−family conflict can be the stressors among employees (Burke, 1993). They may also be categorized as factors intrinsic to the job, management role, relationship with others, career and achievement, organizational structure and climate, home/work interface may be the stressors among people at workplace (Cooper, C.L. & Marshall J. 1976). The model is given in the Figure 1.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Stress is an unwanted reaction due to which people have to undergo severe pressures or other types of demands placed upon them. A huge and multi fields literature points a lot of key factors such as work environment, management support, work load etc in determining the stressful the work can be and its effect on employee physical and mental health, (Ganster & Loghan, 2005). According to (Anderson, 2002) work to family conflicts is also a predecessor which creates stress in employees of an organization. Job stress has been also viewed as dysfunctional for organizations and their members (Kahn, Wolfe, Quinn, Snoek, & Rosenthal, 1964). Job related stress can be mostly immobilizing because of its possible threats to family functioning and individual performance. Job related stress can create a difference between demands on families and the ability of families to provide material security for them (McCubbin & Figley, 1983). Stress exists in every organization either big or small, the work places and organizations have become so much complex due to which it exists. Work place stress has significant effects over the employees´ job performance, and the organizations try to cope with this scenario, (R. Anderson, 2003). Some of the forces are used as antecedents of stress by researchers. They are Overload: excessive work or work that is outside one’s capability (French and Caplan ,1972; Margolis et al, 1974 ; Russek and Zohman, 1958) Role Ambiguity creates stress: Role insufficient information concerning powers, authority and duties to perform one’s role (French and Caplan, 1972; Kahn, et al, 1964), Role Conflict: Supervisors or subordinates place contradictory demands on the individual (Beehr et al, 1976; Caplan and Jones, 1975; Caplan, et al, 1975; Hall and Gordon, 1973; Kahn et al, 1964) Responsibility for people: Responsibility for people´s well−being works, job security, and professional development (French
and Caplan, 1972; Pincherle, 1972). Participation: extent to which one has influence over decisions relevant to one’s job (Kasl, 1973) Margolis et al, 1974). Lack of Feedback: Lack of information about job performance (Adams, 1980 Cassel, 1974) Being in an innovative role: Having to bring about change in the organization (Kahn, et al.1964) Lawrence and Lorsch 1970.
The study was conducted during April −July 2011. Population: The total population is 380. Sample size: The sample size is 152 Sampling Technique: Simple Random Sampling is used in this project. Research hypothesis: There is a significant association between age of the respondents and their overall stress management. Null hypothesis: There is no significant association between age of the respondents and their overall stress management. Findings: The above table shows that there is no significant association between age of the respondents and their overall stress management. Hence, the calculated value is greater than table value. So the research hypothesis is rejected and the null hypothesis accepted.
STUDENT `T´ TEST
Df = 150 Research hypothesis: There is a significant difference between marital status of the respondents and their overall stress management. Null hypothesis: There is no significant difference between marital status of the respondents and their overall stress management. Findings: The table below shows that there is no significant difference between marital status of the respondents and their overall stress management. Hence, the calculated value is greater than table value. So the research hypothesis is rejected and the null hypothesis accepted.
Research hypothesis: There is a significant difference between experience of the respondents and their overall stress management. Null hypothesis: There is no significant difference between experience of the respondents and their overall stress management.
Findings: The above table shows that there is no significant difference between experience of the respondents and their overall stress management. Hence, the calculated value is greater than table value. So the research hypothesis is rejected and the null hypothesis accepted.
A range of ways that a company’s culture can be changed to help reduce stress Flex time: Allowing workers to start or end the workday earlier or later can reduce work/life stress, especially for working parents. Job sharing: This allows at least two people trained to perform each job, enabling each employee to have time off without losing productivity. Work from home: According to an analysis working from home results in higher morale and job satisfaction and lower employee stress and turnover (conducted by researchers at Pennsylvania State University). Eldercare support: Many companies have begun to help with issues such as finding doctors to address age−related diagnosis, and arranging transportation to medical appointments. Healthcare advocacy: Offering an expert who can personally address healthcare issues, medical bills and interacting with insurance providers can help employees reduce worry and stay focused on their job. Stress management workshops: Scheduled workshops that educate employees about the sources of stress, effects on their health and how they can reduce stress can be effective if backed by practical stress management techniques. Build in exercise breaks: Research has found that light to moderate exercise such as a walking or yoga can lower the cholesterol levels that can lead to stress.
The study demonstrates that Employees´ stress level is due to their self and job related condition. Stress can be both positive and negative, which has an impact on the employee’s performance at work. If taken positively, the results are positive, and if taken in a negative way, may yield disastrous results. For most of the people, low to moderate amount of stress enables them to perform their jobs better. The goal of this project is not to eliminate all stress, but to reduce the level of stress. Life would certainly be dull without both joyful stressors to which we have to adjust and distressors needing a response.
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Figure 1: Occupational Stress Evaluation Grid (OSEG)