A Study on Stress Man­age­ment in Coro­man­del En­gi­neer­ing Co. Ltd. Chen­nai

Economic Challenger - - CONTENTS - −R. Karthik

AB­STRACT

Stress has been on a rise in this era as sci­ence and tech­nol­ogy has brought tremen­dous changes in the life style of peo­ple. Stress­ful sit­u­a­tion at work place, dis­turbs the men­tal peace, weak­ens a per­son psy­cho­log­i­cally and cre­ates com­plex­i­ties in so­cial and fa­mil­ial re­la­tion­ship. Peo­ple with a higher per­cent­age of oc­cu­pa­tional stress may not be sat­is­fied with their job and there­fore they will not feel happy work­ing in the or­ga­ni­za­tion. It be­comes the re­spon­si­bil­ity of the em­ploy­ing or­ga­ni­za­tions and the in­di­vid­u­als to iden­tify the causes of stress at the work­place and make ef­forts to re­duce them for the ef­fec­tive­ness and ef­fi­ciency of the in­di­vid­u­als and the or­ga­ni­za­tion it­self. In this junc­ture, the present study is un­der­taken to ad­dress spe­cific prob­lems of coro­man­del en­gi­neer­ing em­ploy­ees re­lated to oc­cu­pa­tional stress. The re­sults will be help­ful to draw up fur­ther pol­icy on the re­lated fields and will give in­for­ma­tion to the top level man­age­ment and the HR de­part­ment about where to fo­cus to re­duce the stress level.

Key­words: Life style, Stress, Men­tal peace, Psy­cho­log­i­cal weak­ness, or­ga­ni­za­tion.

WORK RE­LATED STRESS

Whilst there is lit­tle dis­agree­ment about the preva­lence of stress there is con­sid­er­able de­bate about what the word (stress) ac­tu­ally refers to. Stress is the re­sult of an in­ter­ac­tion be­tween an in­di­vid­ual’s emo­tional, in­tel­lec­tual, so­cial, and phys­i­cal re­sources and the de­mands on him or her. In­dian so­ci­ety is un­der­go­ing rapid changes due to many con­tem­po­rary trends in the form of in­dus­tri­al­iza­tion, lib­er­al­iza­tion, mod­ern­iza­tion, au­to­ma­tion etc. Work­load has been in­creased many folds (ad­di­tional time in their work­place, dead­line to fin­ish tasks etc) that cre­ates stress among them. Stress is the ad­verse re­ac­tion which peo­ple ex­pe­ri­ence due to ex­ces­sive pres­sure or other types of de­mands placed on them (Water & Ussery, 2007). In sim­ple words, stress oc­curs when ex­ter­nal de­mands ex­ceed the in­ter­nal ca­pa­bil­i­ties of a per­son. A per­son en­coun­ters many stres­sors dur­ing course of his work. Re­searchers have clas­si­fied oc­cu­pa­tional stress in dif­fer­ent ways. Phys­i­cal en­vi­ron­ment, role stres­sors, or­ga­ni­za­tional struc­ture, job char­ac­ter­is­tics, re­la­tion­ship with oth­ers, ca­reer devel­op­ment and work−fam­ily con­flict can be the stres­sors among em­ploy­ees (Burke, 1993). They may also be cat­e­go­rized as fac­tors in­trin­sic to the job, man­age­ment role, re­la­tion­ship with oth­ers, ca­reer and achieve­ment, or­ga­ni­za­tional struc­ture and cli­mate, home/work in­ter­face may be the stres­sors among peo­ple at work­place (Cooper, C.L. & Mar­shall J. 1976). The model is given in the Fig­ure 1.

RE­VIEW OF LIT­ER­A­TURE

Stress is an un­wanted re­ac­tion due to which peo­ple have to un­dergo se­vere pres­sures or other types of de­mands placed upon them. A huge and multi fields lit­er­a­ture points a lot of key fac­tors such as work en­vi­ron­ment, man­age­ment sup­port, work load etc in de­ter­min­ing the stress­ful the work can be and its ef­fect on em­ployee phys­i­cal and men­tal health, (Ganster & Loghan, 2005). Ac­cord­ing to (An­der­son, 2002) work to fam­ily con­flicts is also a pre­de­ces­sor which cre­ates stress in em­ploy­ees of an or­ga­ni­za­tion. Job stress has been also viewed as dys­func­tional for or­ga­ni­za­tions and their mem­bers (Kahn, Wolfe, Quinn, Snoek, & Rosen­thal, 1964). Job re­lated stress can be mostly im­mo­bi­liz­ing be­cause of its pos­si­ble threats to fam­ily func­tion­ing and in­di­vid­ual per­for­mance. Job re­lated stress can cre­ate a dif­fer­ence be­tween de­mands on fam­i­lies and the abil­ity of fam­i­lies to pro­vide ma­te­rial se­cu­rity for them (McCub­bin & Figley, 1983). Stress ex­ists in ev­ery or­ga­ni­za­tion ei­ther big or small, the work places and or­ga­ni­za­tions have be­come so much com­plex due to which it ex­ists. Work place stress has sig­nif­i­cant ef­fects over the em­ploy­ees´ job per­for­mance, and the or­ga­ni­za­tions try to cope with this sce­nario, (R. An­der­son, 2003). Some of the forces are used as an­tecedents of stress by re­searchers. They are Over­load: ex­ces­sive work or work that is out­side one’s ca­pa­bil­ity (French and Ca­plan ,1972; Mar­go­lis et al, 1974 ; Russek and Zohman, 1958) Role Am­bi­gu­ity cre­ates stress: Role in­suf­fi­cient in­for­ma­tion con­cern­ing pow­ers, author­ity and du­ties to per­form one’s role (French and Ca­plan, 1972; Kahn, et al, 1964), Role Con­flict: Su­per­vi­sors or sub­or­di­nates place con­tra­dic­tory de­mands on the in­di­vid­ual (Beehr et al, 1976; Ca­plan and Jones, 1975; Ca­plan, et al, 1975; Hall and Gor­don, 1973; Kahn et al, 1964) Re­spon­si­bil­ity for peo­ple: Re­spon­si­bil­ity for peo­ple´s well−be­ing works, job se­cu­rity, and pro­fes­sional devel­op­ment (French

and Ca­plan, 1972; Pincherle, 1972). Par­tic­i­pa­tion: ex­tent to which one has in­flu­ence over de­ci­sions rel­e­vant to one’s job (Kasl, 1973) Mar­go­lis et al, 1974). Lack of Feed­back: Lack of in­for­ma­tion about job per­for­mance (Adams, 1980 Cas­sel, 1974) Be­ing in an in­no­va­tive role: Hav­ing to bring about change in the or­ga­ni­za­tion (Kahn, et al.1964) Lawrence and Lorsch 1970.

SAM­PLE DE­SIGN

The study was con­ducted dur­ing April −July 2011. Pop­u­la­tion: The to­tal pop­u­la­tion is 380. Sam­ple size: The sam­ple size is 152 Sam­pling Tech­nique: Sim­ple Random Sam­pling is used in this project. Re­search hy­poth­e­sis: There is a sig­nif­i­cant as­so­ci­a­tion be­tween age of the re­spon­dents and their over­all stress man­age­ment. Null hy­poth­e­sis: There is no sig­nif­i­cant as­so­ci­a­tion be­tween age of the re­spon­dents and their over­all stress man­age­ment. Find­ings: The above ta­ble shows that there is no sig­nif­i­cant as­so­ci­a­tion be­tween age of the re­spon­dents and their over­all stress man­age­ment. Hence, the cal­cu­lated value is greater than ta­ble value. So the re­search hy­poth­e­sis is re­jected and the null hy­poth­e­sis ac­cepted.

STU­DENT `T´ TEST

Df = 150 Re­search hy­poth­e­sis: There is a sig­nif­i­cant dif­fer­ence be­tween mar­i­tal sta­tus of the re­spon­dents and their over­all stress man­age­ment. Null hy­poth­e­sis: There is no sig­nif­i­cant dif­fer­ence be­tween mar­i­tal sta­tus of the re­spon­dents and their over­all stress man­age­ment. Find­ings: The ta­ble be­low shows that there is no sig­nif­i­cant dif­fer­ence be­tween mar­i­tal sta­tus of the re­spon­dents and their over­all stress man­age­ment. Hence, the cal­cu­lated value is greater than ta­ble value. So the re­search hy­poth­e­sis is re­jected and the null hy­poth­e­sis ac­cepted.

Re­search hy­poth­e­sis: There is a sig­nif­i­cant dif­fer­ence be­tween ex­pe­ri­ence of the re­spon­dents and their over­all stress man­age­ment. Null hy­poth­e­sis: There is no sig­nif­i­cant dif­fer­ence be­tween ex­pe­ri­ence of the re­spon­dents and their over­all stress man­age­ment.

Find­ings: The above ta­ble shows that there is no sig­nif­i­cant dif­fer­ence be­tween ex­pe­ri­ence of the re­spon­dents and their over­all stress man­age­ment. Hence, the cal­cu­lated value is greater than ta­ble value. So the re­search hy­poth­e­sis is re­jected and the null hy­poth­e­sis ac­cepted.

SUG­GES­TIONS

A range of ways that a com­pany’s cul­ture can be changed to help re­duce stress Flex time: Al­low­ing work­ers to start or end the work­day ear­lier or later can re­duce work/life stress, es­pe­cially for work­ing par­ents. Job shar­ing: This al­lows at least two peo­ple trained to per­form each job, en­abling each em­ployee to have time off with­out los­ing pro­duc­tiv­ity. Work from home: Ac­cord­ing to an anal­y­sis work­ing from home re­sults in higher mo­rale and job sat­is­fac­tion and lower em­ployee stress and turnover (con­ducted by re­searchers at Penn­syl­va­nia State Univer­sity). El­der­care sup­port: Many com­pa­nies have be­gun to help with is­sues such as find­ing doc­tors to ad­dress age−re­lated di­ag­no­sis, and ar­rang­ing trans­porta­tion to med­i­cal ap­point­ments. Health­care ad­vo­cacy: Of­fer­ing an ex­pert who can per­son­ally ad­dress health­care is­sues, med­i­cal bills and in­ter­act­ing with in­surance providers can help em­ploy­ees re­duce worry and stay fo­cused on their job. Stress man­age­ment work­shops: Sched­uled work­shops that ed­u­cate em­ploy­ees about the sources of stress, ef­fects on their health and how they can re­duce stress can be ef­fec­tive if backed by prac­ti­cal stress man­age­ment tech­niques. Build in ex­er­cise breaks: Re­search has found that light to mod­er­ate ex­er­cise such as a walking or yoga can lower the choles­terol lev­els that can lead to stress.

CON­CLU­SION

The study demon­strates that Em­ploy­ees´ stress level is due to their self and job re­lated con­di­tion. Stress can be both pos­i­tive and neg­a­tive, which has an im­pact on the em­ployee’s per­for­mance at work. If taken pos­i­tively, the re­sults are pos­i­tive, and if taken in a neg­a­tive way, may yield dis­as­trous re­sults. For most of the peo­ple, low to mod­er­ate amount of stress en­ables them to per­form their jobs bet­ter. The goal of this project is not to elim­i­nate all stress, but to re­duce the level of stress. Life would cer­tainly be dull with­out both joy­ful stres­sors to which we have to ad­just and dis­tres­sors need­ing a re­sponse.

REF­ER­ENCES

Adams, J.D. (1980). Im­prov­ing Stress Man­age­ment: An Ac­tion−Re­search−Based OD In­ter­ven­tion, I Un­der−stand­ing and Man­ag­ing Stress: A Book of Read­ings. Univer­sity As­so­ci­ates, San Diego, Cal­i­for­nia, pp.179−198. An­der­son E.S., Cof­fey S.B., & By­erly T.R. (2002). For­mal Or­ga­ni­za­tional Ini­tia­tives and In­for­mal Work­place Prac­tices: Links to Work−Fam­ily Con­flict and Job−Re­lated Out­comes. Jour­nal of Man­age­ment 28,787. An­der­son R. (2003). Stress at work: the cur­rent per­spec­tive. The Jour­nal of the Royal So­ci­ety for the Pro­mo­tion of Health, 123; 81 Beehr, T.A., Walsh, J.T., & Taber, T.D. 1976. "Per­ceived si­t­u­a­tional mod­er­a­tors of the re­la­tion­ship be­tween sub­jec­tive role am­bi­gu­ity and role strain’, Jour­nal of Ap­plied Psychology, 61, pp.35−40. Brook, A. (1973). Men­tal Stress at Work. The Prac­ti­tioner, Vol 210,pp.500−506. Ca­plan, R.D., and Jones, K.W. (1975). Ef­fects of Work Load, Role Am­bi­gu­ity, and Type A Per­son­al­ity on Anx­i­ety, De­pres­sion, and Heart Rate. Jour­nal of Ap­plied Psychology, Vol­ume pp. 713−719. Erick­son, J., Pugh, W.M., and Gun­der­son, E.K.E. (1972). Sta­tus Con­gru­ency as a Pre­dic­tor of Job Sat­is­fac­tion and Life Stress. Jour­nal of Ap­plied Psychology, Vol 56, pp. 523−525. French, J.R.P., Jr., and Ca­plan, R.D. (1972). Or­ga­ni­za­tional Stress and In­di­vid­ual Strain. in A.J. Mar­row, ed., The Fail­ure of Success, AMA­COM, New York, New York. Kahn, R. L., Wolfe, D. M., Quinn, R. P., Snoek, J. D., & Rosen­thal, R. A. (1964). Or­ga­ni­za­tional stress: Stud­ies in role con­flict and am­bi­gu­ity. New York: Wi­ley Mar­go­lis, B.L., Kroes, W.H., & Quinn, R.P. ( 1974). Job Stress: An Un­listed Oc­cu­pa­tional Haz­ard. Jour­nal of Oc­cu­pa­tional Medicine, Vol, pp. 659−661. McCub­bin, H. I., & Figley, C. R. (Eds.). (1983). Cop­ing with nor­ma­tive tran­si­tions (Vol. 1). New York: Brun­ner/Mazel.

Fig­ure 1: Oc­cu­pa­tional Stress Eval­u­a­tion Grid (OSEG)

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