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The LED in­dus­try made about 100 bil­lion LED chips in 2011 for a mar­ket that needs only 89 bil­lion. that 12 per cent ‘over­sup­ply ra­tio’ will worsen to 21 per cent in 2012 af­ter LED mak­ers add man­u­fac­tur­ing ca­pac­ity. this would mean fur­ther drop in prices o

Electronics For You - - LIGHTING - 1

Com­pared to in­can­des­cent bulbs and com­pact flu­o­res­cent lamps (CFLs), light-emit­ting diodes (LEDs) are char­ac­terised by a low operating volt­age and cur­rent, high re­li­a­bil­ity and long life. The lat­est range of ul­tra-bright LEDs con­sumes just 11 per cent of the elec­tri­cal power con­sumed by in­can­des­cent bulbs for the same light output in lu­mens. That means today’s 11W LED light can give the same light output as a 100W con­ven­tional fil­a­ment bulb.

Thus the global power de­mand will re­duce by more than half if all con­ven­tional lights are re­placed with LEDs. This will elim­i­nate the need to use dan­ger­ous and con­tro­ver­sial nu­clear en­ergy or pol­lut­ing fos­sil fuel power, and also re­duce de­pen­dence on other coun­tries for en­ergy security.

rn­der the shadow of the in­ter­na­tional en­ergy cri­sis and grad­ual im­prove­ment of en­vi­ron­ment pro­tec­tion re­quire­ments, semi­con­duc­tor LED light­ing is recog­nised as the only and most im­por­tant way of en­ergy sav­ing and en­vi­ron­ment pro­tec­tion in the world. It lasts long, al­lows mi­cro­minia­tur­i­sa­tion, and is en­ergy-ef­fi­cient, safe, en­vi­ron­ment-friendly and avail­able in abun­dant colours.

LED light sources are very re­li­able since a sin­gle chip con­verts elec­tri­cal en­ergy into light en­ergy. As this con­ver­sion ef­fi­ciency is the high­est, the heat loss is small and well man­aged to pro­tect the chip. The life of an LED is there­fore prac­ti­cally un­lim­ited at 50,000 hours. Against this, CFLs have as many as 40 or more parts and rarely com­plete the claimed life­span of 5000 hours. Cheap CFLs from China are in­deed a waste of money.

With grad­ual en­hance­ment of lu­mi­nous ef­fi­ciency and ap­pli­ca­tion tech­nolo­gies, the ap­pli­ca­tion area of LEDs has in­creased from just in­di­ca­tor lights to dis­plays, land­scape light­ing, back­light, au­to­mo­tive light­ing and traf­fic lights. LED ap­pli­ca­tions are now in dif­fer­ent de­vel­op­ment phases.

Global LED in­dus­try

Glob­ally, the LED in­dus­try is grow­ing rapidly. Ac­cord­ing to a re­port on the global and Chi­nese LED in­dus­try pub­lished by China Re­search and In­tel­li­gence in 2009, “The en­try bar­ri­ers in the light-emit­ting diode in­dus­try are be­ing cut down grad­u­ally. The up­stream in­dus­try in­cludes monocrys­talline chip and the epi­tax­ial wafer, while the mid­dle-stream in­dus­try is mainly en­gaged in chip pro­cess­ing, and the down­stream in­dus­try han­dles pack­ag­ing, test­ing and ap­pli­ca­tion. The up­stream and mid­dle-stream in­dus­tries—the most com­pet­i­tive and risky fields in the world mar­ket—have more tech­ni­cal in­gre­di­ents and re­quire more investments. In the LED in­dus­try, epi­tax­ial wafer and chip ac­count for about T0 per cent of prof­its, pack­ag­ing 10 to

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