In­dia on course to sub­mit In­tended Na­tion­ally De­ter­mined Con­tri­bu­tions for cli­mate change

FICCI Business Digest - - In Focus -

In­dia is at an ad­vanced stage of fi­nal­iz­ing its In­tended Na­tion­ally De­ter­mined Con­tri­bu­tions (INDCs) and is on course to meet the dead­line for sub­mis­sion of INDCs by Septem­ber 30, 2015. The coun­try would not re­strict its out­look on INDCs to cli­mate change but also tai­lor them to sus­tain­able de­vel­op­ment goals, said Ashok Lavasa, Sec­re­tary, Min­istry of En­vi­ron­ment, For­est and Cli­mate Change, at FICCI's 'Industry Con­sul­ta­tion on In­dia's In­tended Na­tion­ally De­ter­mined Con­tri­bu­tions (INDCs) for Cli­mate Change' in New Delhi on July 14, 2015.

Lavasa said that it has been fun­da­men­tally recog­nised that the right to de­vel­op­ment is ba­sic to hu­man be­ings and all so­ci­eties and this right is ex­er­cised by the gov­ern­ment and cit­i­zens keep­ing in view the as­pi­ra­tions of the peo­ple and avail­able resources. Hence, the big­gest chal­lenge for In­dia is to de­velop INDCs such that the coun­try's growth is not ham­pered and car­bon emis­sions also re­main within an ac­cept­able limit.

Re­fer­ring to the US-China state­ment of last year, Lavasa said that it is well recog­nised that de­vel­op­ing coun­tries will grow and so will their car­bon emis­sion. Hence, he urged the stake­hold­ers to rec­om­mend fea­si­ble so­lu­tions to de­velop con­struc­tive and com­pre­hen­sive INDCs. Cit­ing the Na­tional Mis­sion for En­hanced En­ergy Ef­fi­ciency (NMEEE), which seeks to strengthen the mar­ket for en­ergy ef­fi­ciency by cre­at­ing con­ducive reg­u­la­tory and pol­icy regime, Lavasa added that the gov­ern­ment had al­ready ini­ti­ated other such pro­grammes for sus­tain­able growth of the coun­try.

Elab­o­rat­ing on the role of industry, Lavasa said that his min­istry was re­vis­ing norms for var­i­ous sec­tors to cre­ate an

The INDCs present an im­por­tant op­por­tu­nity for In­dia to show­case its cli­mate lead­er­ship through the com­mu­ni­ca­tion of its past, present and fu­ture cli­mate am­bi­tions.

en­vi­ron­ment where there is less stress on ecol­ogy. He added that there are sec­tors that have im­proved wa­ter ef­fi­ciency and adopted other mea­sures, which would even­tu­ally help in re­duc­ing car­bon emis­sions.

Lavasa stated that de­vel­oped and de­vel­op­ing coun­tries are cur­rently submitting their na­tional post-2020 cli­mate ac­tion com­mit­ments, but it is es­sen­tial to un­der­stand that pre-2020 ac­tions for adap­tion and mit­i­ga­tion are also im­per­a­tive. He added that there was a need to set am­bi­tious tar­gets and scale up the pre-2020 ac­tions to achieve the goal of INDCs.

In his macro pre­sen­ta­tion on 'The INDC Frame­work for In­dia', Ravi Shankar Prasad, Joint Sec­re­tary, Min­istry of En­vi­ron­ment, For­est and Cli­mate Change, said that one of the main pri­or­i­ties is to main­tain a bal­ance be­tween mit­i­ga­tion and adap­ta­tion con­tri­bu­tions while for­mu­lat­ing the INDCs. The com­pre­hen­sive INDCs would also project the re­quire­ment of sup­port in terms of fi­nance, tech­nol­ogy trans­fers and to an ex­tent ca­pac­ity build­ing re­quire­ments. He added, INDCs would be drawn from all the na­tional mis­sions and other ini­tia­tives un­der Na­tional Ac­tion Plan on Cli­mate Change as well as SAPCC and tar­gets set by the gov­ern­ment.

Elab­o­rat­ing on the role of pri­vate sec­tor, Prasad said that ac­tive par­tic­i­pa­tion from pri­vate sec­tor was needed. Be­sides cor­po­ra­tions, in­vestors, gov­ern­ments and cit­i­zen must take re­spon­si­bil­ity to cre­ate the sys­temic change we need for an en­vi­ron­men­tally sus­tain­able econ­omy. He added that there was need to iden­tify ac­tions for re­duc­ing emis­sions as well as for adap­ta­tion. Also, vol­un­tary do­mes­tic car­bon mar­ket was be­ing ex­plored that can be linked with Cor­po­rate So­cial Re­spon­si­bil­ity.

Dr. Prodipto Ghosh, Chair, FICCI Cli­mate Change Task Force and Former Sec­re­tary, MoEF, in his theme ad­dress, touched on a num­ber of is­sues that would have to be re­solved be­fore an agree­ment could be ar­rived at in Paris. He said that from the de­vel­op­ing coun­try per­spec­tive, the Paris out­come has to be eq­ui­table. This ap­plies not only to mit­i­ga­tion, but adap­ta­tion, pro­vi­sion of fi­nance, tech­nol­ogy, and ca­pac­ity build­ing as well; sec­ond, is the ques­tion of pro­vi­sion of fi­nance at the level of $100 bil­lion a year by 2020 as pledged at Copenhagen. Can we in­sist on a process of as­sess­ment, on the ba­sis of agreed eq­uity prin­ci­ples for en­sur­ing this cap­i­tal­i­sa­tion; third, the ques­tion of dif­fer­en­ti­a­tion be­tween An­nex I and non-An­nex I coun­tries.

Fur­ther­more, Dr. Ghosh said that there is also the crit­i­cal ques­tion of bal­ance be­tween the pil­lars of mit­i­ga­tion, adap­ta­tion, and loss and dam­age in the Paris agree­ment be­tween the de­vel­oped and de­vel­op­ing coun­tries. On the is­sue of INDCs, we need to be mind­ful that all INDCs put on the ta­ble will be sub­ject to in­ter­na­tional ac­count­abil­ity through the MRV process.

Also, there is the ques­tion of in­ter­na­tional le­gally bind­ing

na­ture of the Paris out­come. On the need for a global car­bon mar­ket, there may be move­ment, post-Paris, to a sys­tem of fun­gi­bil­ity be­tween the car­bon cred­its from dif­fer­ent na­tional and re­gional mar­kets, he said. There is a need to take a view on the USChina joint state­ment about their re­spec­tive ap­proaches to Paris.

Dr. Arbind Prasad, Di­rec­tor Gen­eral, FICCI, said that the INDCs present an im­por­tant op­por­tu­nity for In­dia to show­case its cli­mate lead­er­ship through the com­mu­ni­ca­tion of its past, present and fu­ture cli­mate am­bi­tions. It is clear that lead­er­ship in cli­mate change has not been forth­com­ing from coun­tries which are re­spon­si­ble for the his­tor­i­cal emis­sions. There­fore, coun­tries such as In­dia, likely to be acutely im­pacted by cli­mate change would need to de­velop a strat­egy on two for­mats - press­ing ma­jor emit­ters to in­crease their mit­i­ga­tion and adap­ta­tion tar­gets; and ramp­ing up its na­tional am­bi­tion to re­duce the vul­ner­a­bil­ity of its own pop­u­la­tion to cli­mate risks while bal­anc­ing high eco­nomic growth.

Rita Roy Choud­hury, Se­nior Di­rec­tor & Head, En­vi­ron­ment, Cli­mate Change, Re­new­able En­ergy & Wa­ter Divi­sion, FICCI, in her con­clud­ing re­marks, said INDCs would present an op­por­tu­nity to de­fine not just the scope of ac­tion in the con­ven­tional realm of car­bon in­ten­sive sec­tors, but also to sug­gest the scope for fu­tur­is­tic ac­tion, par­tic­u­larly in the con­text of new and emerg­ing tech­nolo­gies that would con­trib­ute to a low car­bon tra­jec­tory in the post 2020 pe­riod. To that ex­tent, there is scope for INDCs to look at scal­ing up, ad­dress­ing ex­ist­ing gap ar­eas, and build­ing in new and emerg­ing ar­eas.

L to R: Dr. Prodipto Ghosh, Chair, FICCI Cli­mate Change Task Force and Former Sec­re­tary, MoEF; Ashok Lavasa, Sec­re­tary, Min­istry of En­vi­ron­ment, For­est and Cli­mate Change; Dr. Arbind Prasad, Di­rec­tor Gen­eral, FICCI and Rita Roy Choud­hury, Se­nior Di­rec­tor & Head, En­vi­ron­ment, Cli­mate Change, Re­new­able En­ergy & Wa­ter Divi­sion, FICCI.

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